In today’s society, many would believe they acquire the natural right of freedom; however, people can easily be subject to a totalitarian command which would allow a loss of independence. In George Orwell’s famous dystopia, 1984, he styles a world in which the Inner Party perpetuates absolute power in the nation of Oceania using tactics to assure authority over the Outer Party, like Winston Smith. By removing individual reasoning, disrupting the capacity to comprehend, and camouflaging the past, the Inner Party is guaranteed total control.
By physically controlling the Outer Party, The Inner Party extracts rational and independent thought from the citizens of Oceania to regulate absolute power. In a crucial scene, O’Brien threatens Winston with a cage full of rats–his worst fear–to indoctrinate the victim’s loyalty to Big Brother. When the rats are near Winston’s face he screams, “Do it to Julia! Not me! Tear her face off [and] strips her to the bones!”(286). The interrogation highlights how torture is used as a device to force citizens to submit to the government’s authority because once Winston’s body was restrained and faced with terror, his mental capacity was blocked. Now, Winston’s interests are not to fashion a rebellion since the fear of rats dominates his extent to reason and becomes a servant to the state. In addition, stigmatizing sex and redefining it as essential for reproduction constricts emotion because it eliminates loving another individual. In return, the Outer Party remains loyal to the Inner Party because each individual will only adore Big Brother, stripping logical thinking. Furthermore, nationalistic propaganda constantly reminds the citizens that the Inner Party surveys surroundings: “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, the caption said, while the dark eyes looked deep into Winston’s own”(2). Big Brother symbolizes how a dictator in a totalitarian government is superior by practicing absolute power through supervising citizens lives. Since the Outer Party is in a state of danger from the surveillance, the member’s human reasons are shadowed with anxiety and suspicion. Therefore, the Inner Party thrives off of vulnerability to gain authority because they can exploit individual minds to distract the people’s rational comprehension.
The Inner Party is able to maintain its authority by distracting individual thought. For instance, Oceania is apart of an everlasting war with Eurasia or Eastasia to divert any ideas of rebellion by keeping the citizens in constant fear: “Suddenly the whole street was in commotion. There were yells of warning from all sides. People were shooting into the doorways like rabbits. A young woman leaped out of a doorway…grabbed…a tiny child…whipped her apron round it, and leaped back again”(83). The Inner Party uses warfare as an essential mechanism because the citizens will submit to the dominant power by instilling terror. Also, this terror would prevent rebellious thought by establishing an enemy. Additionally, Newspeak–the official language of Oceania–limits ideas and expression to effectively have influence over individuals mind. Furthermore, The Inner Party disapproves of solitude because the isolation can breed independent thought. When Winston was alone, he thought of planning a rebellion with O’Brien to stop the Inner Party’s oppression; however, no other individual paralleled his reasoning because “In principle, a Party member had no spare time, and was never alone except in bed”(81). Moreover, the Inner Party distracts the Outer Party’s minds through simulating paranoia and keeping everyone in a social environment.
By altering warfare and social conditions, the Inner Party prevaricates the truth and conceals the past to sustain supremacy. The totalitarian state of Oceania rations necessities and goods to its inhabitants, and publicizes that the food quantities are substantial: “The Ministry Of Plenty [said] that there would be no reduction of the chocolate ration during 1984…Actually, the chocolate ration was to be reduced from thirty grams to twenty by the end of the present week”(34). As the Inner Party becomes a powerful government, the citizens of Oceania adapt to the limitations of daily commodities, like coffee or sugar. This aids in the reduction of memory because the Outer Party Members will normalize their circumstances, unwilling to rebel from the apparent oppression. In addition, Winton’s occupation at the Ministry of Truth is to rectify historical documents and revise articles to initiate and prolong the Party’s principles. In doing so, Winston must embrace doublethink–accepting that two contradictory beliefs both obtain the truth. In one scene, the Party proclaims Oceania has always been at war with Eurasia and not Eastasia, making the past changeable and not definite. Winston reassured, “Oceania was at war with Eastasia: Oceania had always been at war with Eastasia. A large part of the political literature of five years was now completely obsolete”(182). Now, any history confronting the latest Party ideals has to be redefined. In return, the Inner Party benefits because if the government can mandate the past, they have the capacity to compose a fitting future. Overall, the Inner Party disguises the truth to perpetuate their interests.
The Inner Party’s tactics to maintain their position as a high power reflected totalitarian methods through implementing fear or stripping away any perspective. They use the citizen’s emotions to withdraw logical thinking. In addition, the Inner party disconcerts thought by limiting private communication Lastly, the government conceals legitimate truths and recreates their goals. Without these methods, the Outer Party would be able to be the masters of their minds and creates a mass revolt against the Inner Party.