During the 1960s and 1970s, a need was sought to minimize the threat of exhaust emission from engines with internal combustion to lower the United States’ reliance on imported oil. From 1960 to the present day, numerous attempts have been made to build an electric vehicle from a practical standpoint. The intended purpose of this research paper is to provide a bit of insight regarding the technology required to mass-produce an electric vehicle and also the benefits of electric vs. internal combustion engines (ICE). I will additionally list numerous reasons why electric vehicles (EVs) are increasing in popularity and beneficial implications in reducing our carbon footprint. Also, I will briefly describe the main components of EV motors, the difference between electric and hybrid, and the direction EVs are heading in the near future. There are massive benefits regarding the overall health of the World’s inhabitants.
Research Paper on Electric Car
In comparison to vehicles that require fossil fuels, electric vehicles (EVs) are reported to be almost ninety-seven percent3 cleaner, with zero emissions. Vehicles that require fossil fuels emit particulate matter, from the muffler, into the atmosphere. Particulate matter “Can increase asthma conditions, as well as irritate respiratory systems” (1). The Beginning The first electric vehicle was built somewhere between 1832 and 1839 by Scottish native Robert Anderson, who invented the first: “crude electric carriage.” The exact year of inception is still unconfirmed. In 1895, William Morrison built a six-passenger wagon, and A.L. Ryker designed an electric tricycle. It was not until 1902 that car manufacturer Wood created the Electric Phaeton. “The Phaeton had a range of eighteen miles and a top speed of fourteen miles per hour, with a cost of two thousand dollars” (2).
“The declining production and use of EVs happened in the early 1920s due to the improvement of road/interstate systems, reduction of gasoline prices resulting from the discover of Texas crude oil, the invention of the electric starter, and the mass production of internal combustion vehicles” (2). As mentioned in the History of Electric Vehicles: “In 1912, an electric roadster sold for one-thousand seven-hundred and fifty dollars, while a gasoline car sold for six-hundred and fifty dollars” (2, pg.1). By 1935, EVs completely disappeared. It was not until the 1960s did a resurgence of EVs became prominent due to unhealthy environments caused by internal combustion engine emissions. Description of Electric Vehicles “The electric vehicle is propelled by an electric motor powered by a rechargeable battery pack rather than a gasoline engine. From the outside, the vehicle does not appear to be electric.
Argumentative Essay Examples on Electric Car
In most cases, electric cars are created by converting a gasoline-powered car. Often, the only thing that clues the vehicle is electric is the fact that it is nearly silent” (5). Under the hood of the electric vehicle are three main components: an electric motor, a controller, and a rechargeable battery pack. The electric motor is powered by a controller that subsequently receives its power from a rechargeable battery pack. EVs operate on an electric/current principle. The battery pack provides power for the motor, which then uses the power (in voltage) delivered from the batteries to rotate a transmission, which is used to turn the wheels. The four main parts that make up the electric vehicle are the potentiometer, batteries, direct current (DC) controller, and motor. Description of Parts w/ Functions The potentiometer is round in shape and is attached to the accelerator pedal. It is also called a variable restrictor due to the fact that it sends messages to the controller determining how much power is to be delivered, thus determining, controlling, and maintaining speed.
Thesis Statement for Electric Car
There are three different types of batteries that can power the controller; lithium ion, nickel metal hydride, and battery acid. All batteries range in power (voltage). The DC controller takes power and distributes it to the motor. For example, when the vehicle is stopped, it would deliver zero power. If the accelerator is fully depressed, it will have full power. Obviously, the same principle as with combustion engines. “If the battery pack contains twelve 12-volt batteries, wired in a series to create 144 volts direct current, it will deliver it to the motor in a controlled way” (3). There are two potentiometers the controller reads to accurately determine and regulate power. If the accelerator is depressed by twenty-five percent, the controller will distribute power in a pulse fashion. This means it will operate twenty-five percent of the time and be off the remaining seventy-five percent. “If both signals from the potentiometers are not equal, the controller will not operate” (3). The motor gets its power from the controller, which turns the transmission, causing the wheels to turn, which moves the vehicle.
Operation for Electric Vehicle (In Theory) Once the driver steps on the accelerator, the potentiometer activates and sends a signal to the controller determining how much power is to be delivered. Two potentiometers are installed for redundancy purposes. When the controller observes the position of the accelerator from the potentiometers, it will then regulate the power accordingly by taking power from the batteries and delivering it to the motor. Once the motor receives the voltage (power) from the controller, it will then use it to power and rotate the transmission. Transmission spins, causing the wheels to turn, which in turn causes the vehicle to propel forward or backward. If the driver fully depresses the accelerator, the controller will deliver full power to the motor. If they take their foot off the gas pedal, the controller will deliver zero power to the motor. This concept holds true throughout every position or setting in between. For every set, the controller will add or reduce voltage thousands of times every second to maintain the intended power.
Ideas for Hybrid Vehicles
Hybrid Vehicles “Hybrid vehicles (HVs) operate on a gasoline and electric energy principle by utilizing both gas and electric motors. The internal combustion engine is the primary of the two, and the electric motor contributes more power is needed, such as accelerating or passing an individual” (4). A hybrid car is usually equipped with a fuel-efficient gasoline engine accompanied by an electric motor to contribute power to the engine when accelerating. Electric motors are powered by rechargeable batteries that maintain their charge while the vehicle is being driven. There are five main parts that comprise the hybrid vehicle: the internal combustion engine (ICE), the battery, a generator, a power split device, and the electric motor. Description of Parts w/Functions Hybrid car batteries stores the energy needed to supply power to the electric motor.
Opposite the gasoline in the tank, which is utilized as a power source, the electric motor within the hybrid vehicle can store energy as well as draw from it. The internal combustion engine (ICE) found in a hybrid vehicle is predominantly smaller than non-hybrid vehicles and utilizes technology specifically focusing on increased efficiency and the reduction of emissions. As listed above, the hybrid vehicle predominantly receives energy from gasoline stored in the fuel tank. The generator is comparable to an electric motor, with its main difference being utilized strictly for the production of powering the battery. The power split device is located between the two motors acting as a continuously variable transmission, keeping both motors in constant homeostasis.
Operation of Hybrid Vehicle (In Theory) Once the driver depresses the accelerator, the generator immediately begins to convert its energy from the engine, creating electricity and storing it in the battery. The battery provides power to the electric motor. The electric motor and the internal combustion work in harmony by providing power to the power split device. Once the power split device receives power from both motors, it quickly and efficiently distributes the power required to turn the transmission. Once the transmission receives its power, it utilizes it to rotate the tires, causing the vehicle to move in its intended direction. When braking, the energy supplied is converted into electricity which is subsequently stored in the battery. When depressing the brake pedal, the electric motor reverses to conserve power and also assist in the reduction of speed. Once the vehicle has stopped, both motors automatically shut off so as to not waste energy. The battery continuously powers all auxiliary systems, such as the in-dash displays, radio, etc.
Electric Vehicle Advantage/Disadvantage
Comparison Rechargeable batteries in electric vehicles are plagued with the greatest challenge. On average, an electric vehicle’s range averages anywhere between one-hundred and two-hundred miles before needing to be recharged. “The time required to fully recharge the batteries can range from as little as thirty minutes to eight hours. Battery packs are extremely expensive to replace and also occupy a large portion of space within the vehicle” (5). Electric vehicles’ advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.
The main advantage, for example, is that electric vehicles are zero-emission, resulting in a considerable reduction in damage to the environment and personal health. “Compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, electric vehicles are considered to be ninety-seven percent cleaner, producing no tailpipe emissions that can place particulate matter into the air” (1). Global warming is the diminishing of the Earth’s ozone layer caused by carbon dioxide being released into the upper atmosphere. These particulates “can increase asthma conditions, as well as irritate respiratory systems” (1). “The carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by internal combustion engines reduces the ozone layer, which absorbs ninety-seven to ninety-nine percent of the sun’s high-frequency ultraviolet light” (7). Ultraviolet light is a product of the sun considered to be highly detrimental to life on planet Earth. Ultraviolet light poses permanent damage to the skin, producing skin cancer.
The Future of Electric Vehicles The future of electric vehicles is extremely promising. With the implementation of more powerful batteries such as lithium-ion phosphate (LiFePO4), boasting unprecedented rechargeability and power. Currently, LiFePO4 batteries are being used in other countries in vehicles such as scooters and bikes. More than likely, switching to these types of batteries would be adopted in the near future. An additional technology that will more than likely be utilized in future advancements concerning the electric vehicle are supercapacitors and ultracapacitors.
Hybrid vehicle prototypes are implementing such technologies and are intended to be mass-produced in the near future. “If the developers of future electric cars can create vehicles with a range of three-hundred miles per charge, a charging time of five to ten minutes, and safety in operating the vehicles, the market is wide open for them. Researchers are working on improving battery technologies to increase driving range and decrease recharging time, weight, and cost. These factors will ultimately determine the future of electric vehicles” (8).
In conclusion, I have listed numerous benefits and advantages electric vehicle has over hybrid vehicles and internal combustion vehicles. It is undeniably more efficient and cleaner to operate. With all the advantages displayed, there are a few disadvantages as well. Electric vehicles are heavier due to the batteries and are limited in range. The battery is the main determining factor in the success of electric vehicles. To this day, electric vehicles are as different as their manufacturer, making each unique and special in their own right. Electric vehicles are the pathway to a future with a drastically diminished carbon footprint. Electricity is the future. Thank you for taking the time to read my submission. I hope you enjoy reading and understanding the information I have highlighted above. References (1) Electric Cars: Effect on the Environment. (1998)