Milk is a complex biological fluid consisting of seven main components: water, fat, protein, sugar (lactose), minerals, vitamins and enzymes. It is an almost ideal liquid food universally accepted for its high nutritive value, flavor and palatability. Milk is one of the most widely consumed foods throughout the world. India’s Dairy industry is considered as one of the most successful development programmes in the post-Independence period. This huge milk production is due to involvement of large number of rural Dairy farmers. Per capita milk availability in Jharkhand is 145 grams per day compared to a national average of 290 grams per day (NDDB- 20112012 Milk being highly perishable in nature is spoiled within few hours of storage at room temperature. Multiplication of microbes in milk at high temperature is very high.
Milk is produced in rural areas but demand is in urban area. Fresh milk cannot be stored for long time. A considerable amount of milk is wasted due to poor milk processing, handling and storage facility. Presently, the consumption of milk due to its low shelf life accounts for about 455 of total milk production and remaining 55% is utilized by organized sector for manufacturing value added Dairy products. Milk pasteurisation prior to distribution and sale is essential. Therefore, fresh milk is converted into pasteurized milk for improving keeping quality and higher returns.
During boosting the dry matter in the milk, homogenization occurs. For homogenization, the milk must be heated to a temperature of 55-65 ° C. Pasteurization takes place after homogenization.
The pasteurized milk is consumed by people of different age groups. Milk processing in India is around 35 percent, of which the organized Dairy industry account for 13 percent of the milk produced, while the rest of the milk is either consumed at farm level, or sold as fresh, non pasteurized milk through unorganized channels. Dairy Cooperatives account for the major share of processed liquid milk marketed in the India. Many companies in Jharkhand are involved in production of pasteurized milk. The Sudha are the most prominent players in procurement, processing and marketing in Ranchi city. The Sudha Dairy, Ranchi is under Bihar State Milk Co-Operative Federation Ltd. (COMFED), Patna. The main functions of these two dairies are procurement, storage, processing, distribution and marketing. Pasteurized milk available in Ranchi city outlets are in the forms of toned milk, double toned milk, full cream milk and standardized milk. The different pasteurized milk is liked by different age group of the people. In Ranchi city, most of the people are consuming packed milk. Brand preferences of the urban consumers differ. Some buyers are totally brand loyal and buy only one brand. Most of the buyers switch over to other brands also. The information regarding packet size, composition, cost, consumers preference for pasteurized milk, outlets sale details and SWOT analysis of Sudha Dairy in Ranchi are essential for consumers as well as Dairy industries.
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