This experiment explored the effect of the level of glucose in Lactaid 1% White Milk, Kemps 1% White Milk, Kemps 1% Chocolate Milk, and Kemps 1% Strawberry Milk, which is broken down by lactase. Lactase supplement tablets have been added to the various milks to test the production of C02 measured in (ppm). The amount of glucose varies by milk. Lactaid Milk has high levels of glucose because the lactose has already been broken down into two monosaccharides, galactose and glucose, making it suitable for lactose intolerant people but a lot higher in sugar content (Lactaid,2018). The independent controlled variable was the Lactaid 1% White Milk. The data of Lactaid 1% White Milk -measured in CO2- was used to compare all of the trials to being: Kemps 1% White Milk, Kemps 1% Chocolate Milk and Kemps 1% Strawberry Milk. The Lactaid milk increased at an average of 422% CO2 and its average of CO2 produced in 600 seconds was 4,258. These values were the largest increases within the tested aerobic respiration due to the disaccharides already being broken down causing more glucose production when the lactase supplement was added. The controlled variables were the amounts of each type of milk, which was kept at 15 mL(+/- 1.0 mL) for each trial, lactase supplement tablet which was kept at 0.25 g (+/- 0.5 g), the time which was consistently 600 seconds (+/- 10 seconds) for each trial and set, and the fat content of the milk always being at 1% for all four types of milk. The dependent variable was the amount of aerobic respiration ,measured in CO2 (ppm), produced. The results showed that the Lactaid milk had the highest amount of CO2 production that had an average rate of 4258 ppm (+/- 0.5 ppm) and an average percent increase of 422% (+/- 0.5 ppm) all within a 600 second (+/- 10 seconds) time frame. The second highest was produced by 15 ml (+/- 1.0 ml) Kemps 1% Strawberry Milk with the mean of aerobic respiration measured in Carbon Dioxide (+/- 0.5 ppm) within a 600 seconds (+/- 10 seconds) being 2,972 ppm (+/- 0.5 ppm). The average percent increase for Kemps 1% Strawberry Milk was 320% (+/- 0.5 ppm). Following Kemps 1% Strawberry Milk with CO2 production, is Kemps 1% Chocolate Milk. Kemps 1% Chocolate milk had an average CO2 production of 1,588 ppm (+/- 0.5 ppm) and an average increase of 171% (+/- 0.5 ppm) within a 600 second (+/- 10 seconds) time frame. The lowest amount of CO2 production came from the Kemps 1% White Milk which had an average of 1,195 ppm(+/- 0.5 ppm) and an average percent increase of 126% ppm (+/- 0.5 ppm) within a 600 second timeframe. The lower the amount of CO2 produced displays that there are still disaccharides to be broken down which is not good for people with lactose intolerance.
The standard deviation (SD) of the highest producing CO2 data set -aside from the Lactaid Milk- is Kemps 1% Strawberry Milk with a 119 SD. The SD of both Kemps 1% Strawberry Milk and Kemps 1% Chocolate Milk were similar, chocolate milk having a SD of 108 and strawberry milk having 119. The SD of kemps 1% White Milk was significantly less than the other two standard deviations with a SD of 44.3. The standard deviation is a representation of the average amount based on the length away of the highest and lowest data points, in comparison to the overall average. As mentioned, the standard deviation of both sets of strawberry milk and chocolate milk are similar which would increase the reliability of the data. However, even though the standard deviations for strawberry and chocolate milk were similar (119 and 108), both deviations ares till very large numbers which show data extrapolation compared to the white milk. The SD for both sets are not very far separated from each other, therefore reinforcing correlation between data sets, making this reliable. The standard deviations are reliable because their averages are close, which shows the average means were closely related to the data collected, therefore making the expected outcome close to the actual outcome. Having these closely related SDs- aside from Kemps 1% White Milk low SD- enforces the validity of results, because the end measurements and averages were common.
There were three T-test values, which were compared to the independent controlled variable which is the Lactaid Milk. The t-test value for Kemps 1% White Milk was 3.81, Kemps 1% Chocolate Milk was 2.60 and Kemps 1% Strawberry was 1.01. The degrees of freedom for this experiment was four, which means that the t-test values must not exceed 9.49 in order to accept the null hypothesis. Within four degrees of freedom, the t-test value can not exceed the p-value of 9.49, which none of the data sets did therefore the null hypothesis is accepted. The t-test for Kemps 1% White Milk was 3.81, Kemps 1% Chocolate Milk was 2.60 and Kemps 1% Strawberry Milk was 1.01 were all lower than the p-value. The p-value is measured at 5% which means that the trials have to be 95% valid to accept the results, and these data sets do not exceed therefore accepting the null hypothesis.
The null hypothesis was accepted because all of the data sets were significantly lower than the p-value at 9.49. The null hypothesis was accepted,and the predicted hypothesis was correct as well. The predicted 1% Kemps Strawberry Milk was the milk that produced the highest amounts of CO2, aside from the independent controlled variable of Lactaid 1% Milk.
In conclusion, the null hypothesis was accepted due to all of t-test values falling lower than the 9.49. Kemps 1% White Milk, t-test being 3.81, Kemps 1% Chocolate Milk being 2.60 and Kemps 1% Strawberry being all within four degrees of freedom did not exceed the 9.49 p-value which would make the results of the experiment reliable.
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