Television is a common household appliances in the modern culture. But many of us still do not know the word of television is came from combination of Greek and Latin. It is defined as a multifarious apparatus that transmitting sound and picture information through the electronic device (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000).
Television executives as industry evolved in late 1940s, but in fact, as early as 1920s, several technological developments set the stage of television (Wasko, 2005). As the years passed, it become popular culture and people constantly consume valuable news, education, entertainment and which play a fundamental part of everyday life. The television industry benefited from the globalization of new and information. However traditional media landscape are enormously challenge or even replacing by new media technologies. Nowadays television news are more convenient to browse directly from website by many reader.
The purpose of this essay to discuss and analyze how the television undergone a radical transformation from past to future landscape.
Accordingly to The History Channel as sited by Janet Wasko (2005), television is so called one of the dominant form of mass media from the day they marketed till current day. The information program like news, documentaries, weather and music are stimulate every aspect of our cultural value and history. Based on the research from Herr (2007), 99 percent of families in United States acquire at least one television set and 66 percent of them will watch more than 8 hours a day in the year 1950s. Therefore, the technologies of television was played an incredible role in every people life.
Communication theories have changed throughout the development and transformation over times. Looking at uses and gratification theory, it was no longer focused on what media can affected people, but see how people are being satisfied by the media. Desires of audience was trigger by entertainment to fulfill their feeling of security, as a way for psychological needs that can relieve stress, escape from reality and relax. It treated as media user is more active to approach and control on what program they loves based on their own favorite, no merely being a defenseless audience (Bignell, 2013)
The new TV programming trends like soap storyline, quiz show are popular and which gives stronger effect and impact to the sociocultural environment and denoting the behavior that is positive. Featured of Sesame Street (Fisch Te al., 1999) and Hum Log give position result and raising the perception of social issue for communities. By reflect and showing real life character to promoting the moral to audience (Sood 2002).
Yet, in 2009, Nielsen’s report indicated the viewership of television was still grow up in 1.4% and four minute. It is mean that audience still watch television even if digital video recorders (DVRs) are developed and penetrated into U.S households. Furthermore, news article from Media Post show the demographic group on younger children between age of 2 to 5 are viewing television for more than 32 hours. Other than this, demographic breakdown 100 TV household by Nielsen Television Audience Edition (2011) was show that from 2009 until 2012, total viewership was remained average of 253 for this four years, however the groups of demographic was slightly decline for adult in 35 to 49 age groups from 283 to 266. Despite this, it continue growing for above 50 age group from 435 to 452.
Hence, accordingly on above statistic, television as a communication system is still plays an important role and central presence around the world. Even though rapid pace of new media are challenge to television by providing more fast, accessible content for citizens. For many countries, society are still getting the information, religion, cultural force, even public event like elections and campaigns.
Innovation of internet in 1990s and continue growing of new media technologies affecting traditional television industry to keep up with accelerated changes in order adopt in new digital world.
Digital media which developed by manufacturer, able to exchange, transfer and manipulate a large number of data at the same time. Besides, audience can also get interactive by the social experience which enable them to produce content at digital world like Google, Facebook with no cost involve and they are become creator. This is one of the important feature that traditional media are not able to provide for this instant accessible and communication. As a result, traditional television are being pushed aside by new technologies.
Further, 69% of people getting their information from internet based on survey conducted. The study also shown that the percentage of viewer for television was decreased by 3.6% while 1.9% increased for online browsing user, these finding were supported by ARAnet conducted Option Research Corporation.
Accordingly to Canning (2007), new media technologies will expand in global from 11 to 18 percent and rapid pace of new media is five times the rate higher when compare to traditional media. As a result, the viewer is diminish gradually in size and it no longer provide good revenue for advertiser as well as local television stations. Accordingly of Giles (2010), It is not surprise that people are more tend to use Internet to make their life easier and shorthand way for newspaper and TV shows they do not like. People is more likely to explore and accept the changing and develop of new media.
Television manager are facing the challenge on revenue, as digital platform are able to attract new audience with low advertising cost and get more attention. Based on Bioelectrical Impedance Anlaysis (BIA) as sited by Hendricks predicted, percentage of expenses for advertising cost in new media was increased by 46% in year 2008. On the others hand, we can also get the data from The New York Times (2018), companies who spending on television advertisement was begun dipped with about $60 million for last 4 years, while they are spreading their investment to others platform in digital platform which keep increasing from $60 billion to $90 billion from 2016 to 2017.
Others than that, companies like the new media as it enable user to tracking client behavior and target on advertisement. Therefore, in order to compete with new media from mobile device, internet and others, media manager spent in million to ready for digital television in order to face the challenge.
Transformation of technologies was threaten media manager to adopt quickly and decide for both financial and future operation. Therefore, it is very important that television need to boost more revenue by enhance the quality content and performance for advertisement and overcome the weakness of economics.
Younger generation watched TV clips through the mobile devices is predicted to be increase in near future. Firstly, with this development of technology, television can involve technology transformation to expand in mobile delivery as alternative option to gain more young generation user.
Secondly, feature of online media with more interactivity and allow for audience involvement which grab their attention and interested. Get audience to share instantaneous information to create the experience and exposure, turn it into a community instead of being passive participants like own history. Therefore, media manager can works with rating and software company to implemented with online survey to study for new opportunities on interactive market.
In addition, by using external link to linking user to another sources of competitor is one of the strategy, it seem to be risky for media manager, but you can become an active role to provide “FIRST” source for your user, if you cant serve all the needs of your audience by yourself. The challenge is to deal with possible changes in streams of revenue.
Media manager can implement with digital media by compose their own viewing schedules and selections of programs and huge databases from which viewers can download their choices, or have their personal video recorders make choices for them. Moreover, being created new department to adopt in new media and by selling the advertisement to digital web page in order to generate more revenue. Other than that, media manager can reduce the operational cost by seeking for skillful freelance or part time employee.
One more recommendation was generate the revenue by direct selling merchandise, media product, advertisement product or service can capture audience attention and interested. This will be pulling new opportunities to the station and gaining more audience and at the same time increase advertising rate and generate the steady revenue.
New media with the concept will be the demise of traditional television, however television is still stronger ever when it came into existence.
Even though the audience was not dramatically drop, however attention of user was divided among more competitor and station. In order to stabilize the position of television in market, the improvement and transformation for station is important.
Lastly, traditional media can take the full advantage of new digital technologies with lookout for more opportunities and put the pieces together.
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