Essentially, job analysis is a systematic and formalizes study of a particular job. As much as it is not a requirement by law to conduct job analyses, it is central in defending and authenticating the selection processes. Job analysis is paramount and most human resource (HR) interventions such as hiring or training and development are based upon job analyses.
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A job analysis is also critical in averting any unfair criteria in selection. Job analysis plays a role of clarifying points upon which HR practitioners make necessary inferential leaps from mere job activities to the KSAOs needed in performing the activities(KSAO- knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics related to the job; both behavioral and technical). Job analysis provides a means through which information is collected and consequently used in the development of job descriptions, KSAOs, job specifications, and competencies (Catano et al, 2016).
A job analysis offers a process through which HR practitioners are able to specify the requirements of a particular employment position as well as the procedures and functions. An adequate job analysis is the critical tot eh success of a human resource function since it can enable the organization to gain a competitive advantage through identifying job requirements and being able to conduct a hiring or selection process that enables them to get the best talent through acquisition of the best talent and KSAOs that are necessary in demonstrating the identified requirements after a job analysis. Job analysis lays a strong foundation for successful HRM practices since the information gained from it can be used for various purposes besides reducing the inferential leaps between job requirements and KSAOs needed in demonstrating such requirements (Saks, et al, 2010).
In the selection and recruitment process, employers look to employ and hire the best and most suitable applicants. Information gained from job analysis mostly assists employers in achieving this objective since HR can be able to identify the best hiring criteria. This is because they can match the requirements to identifying criteria based on things such as knowledge, skills, abilities, or other necessary characteristics (KSAOs) needed to perform efficiently on the job: these can be technical or behavioral depending on what an analysis of the job requires of the persons to fill the vacancy prior to the selection process. HR can use such information in developing appropriate selection tools such as interview questions or tests (a legal part of selection). Employers should show that a selection criterion is always job-related in the face of litigation; and that information gained from job analysis was used in the selection practice. (Catano et al, 2016)
Thus, the job analysis process identifies job requirements and reduces the inferential differences between the requirements and KSAOs needed to complete the job through creation of selection criteria that regards necessary/desired KSAOs based on the requirements identified through job analysis.
Employment equity has for a long time been a contentious issues and discrimination in the recruitment/ hiring/ selection process may be outright and in some instances the employers may not even realize that they subconsciously discriminate against some groups. Constitutional law, labor laws, human rights laws, and employment equity all speak against any kind of discrimination in labor practices such as in the hiring/ recruitment process among other processes such as promotions or layoffs and salary increments. It is imperative that employers and organization conduct hiring in a non-discriminatory manner and only hire on merit as long as candidates fulfill the requirements and possess the necessary KSAOs (Long & Singh, 2017). Discriminating against persons based on ethnic/ racial basis, sexual orientation, marital status, religion and physical or mental disability should be avoided. This may make employers legally liable to litigation and punishments. Therefore, self-assessment on hiring and selection processes is imperative for an organization to identify whether there is any discrimination against protected groups and any such discrimination should be dealt with appropriately (Catano et al, 2016).
Selection practices can be deemed to be discriminatory where the employer or organization misuses recruitment agencies or advertisements as well as the selection criteria. Any kind of selection or recruitment criteria that specify on the specific race, gender, and other protected groups/ populations is deemed to be illegal. In fact, selection criteria that make some specifics that show expressed discrimination against some protected groups make employers liable to legal consequences. In addition, direct selection by word of mouth excessively in an organization is a show of discrimination since the employer may show preference of some people over others when instead all potential candidates should be given a level playing ground by undergoing the selection process. Lack of adequate processes to give all in the qualified pool in the labor market an equal chance is discriminatory (Saks, et al, 2010).
Homogeneous selection and recruitment is also a sign of discrimination. This could be in instances of racial discrimination especially whereby a firm in an area with both whites and blacks (or any other races) chooses to hire dominantly a single race. It is imperative to avoid any near exclusion or utter exclusion of protected groups. In addition, an employer/ organization may assess whether they are affected by stereotyping in making decisions. Mostly such bias against protected groups and minorities may not be conscious but will still be discriminatory. It is important that the employer identifies any biases and stereotypes that are unconsciously promoting discriminatory processes in selection. Lastly, the employers need to assess if the screening of applicants is done in a discriminating mannerism. Screening should be uniform as identified by job analysis and the ensuing criteria (Saks, et al, 2010).
Concisely, being aware of any shortcomings and things that may indicate discrimination in selection is the first step to ending it. In addition, organizations need to be uniform in handling all applicants and follow the criteria set out after a job analysis. Regarding the legal instruments is also another way to keep employers in line as far as selection is concerned. Labor laws, employment equality, human rights, and constitutional law should guide selection (Long & Singh, 2017).
Upon hiring and recruiting employees, employers and organizations need to assess t=the performance of employees to see who is on a high and who is on a low as well as identify how to move forward. Performance needs to be measured effectively and avoid the pitfalls that may occur with performance measurement in some instances. Performance measures need to be effective since performance measurement is a complex issue. Having identified job dimensions through job analyses, those dimensions are measured through performance measurement. Effective performance measures need t be reliable, practical, and relevant (Long & Singh, 2017).
In regards to relevancy, the performance measurement criterion needs to be relevant on the degree to which competencies and behavior constituting jib performance are captured. Sometimes a criterion used may be deficient such that the criterion fails to capture and assess the competencies and behaviors that are relevant to the job. Another pitfall in performance management as far as the criterion used is concerned is whereby there is criterion contamination. This is whereby performance measurement criterion and the results gained are influenced by other things or behaviors that are not relevant to job performance. This tends to discredit performance measurement. It is therefore essential to have performance measurement criteria and practices that are relevant (Catano et al, 2016).
Performance measurement tools and methods need to solely focus on behaviors and activities related to job performance, bias and person al feelings should be avoided with measures such as check lists filled for various job descriptions and in assessing the people working in those position. Relevance can only be guaranteed when there are laid down procedures for assessment in different job descriptions after an analysis is conducted even prior to hiring and selection. Procedures and processes to measure performance in a certain job ensure that the criterion is relevant and focuses only on the job performance and issues related to performance on the job (Catano et al, 2016).
Job performance can also be effectively assessed when the criterion used is reliable. Reliability of a performance measurement criterion is whereby there is no random measurement error and that there is an agreement between evaluations at different periods of time done using different measures.
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