|Date published:||05 Sep 2018|
Leadership is an essential function for any organization. It refers to the conduct of a person while coordinating a group toward a common objective. Perreira & Berta, (2016) suggests that healthcare management requires leadership skills in many departments across the organization. Chatalalsingh & Reeves, (2014) indicate that the key roles of leadership include impacting activities and adapting to change. People have diverse perspective about leadership and management. Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman & Humphrey, (2011) indicates that each person interprets the functions and roles of a leader different from the other person. A challenge while considering leadership in health care organizations is that most theories were not created in that setting, but rather were developed for the business environment and connected to medical services (Northouse, 2016). Various methods of management exist, including leadership ethics and transformational leadership. Such theories try to analyze the role and functions of a leader from different viewpoints. As an employee in a clinical research organization, there are various interpretations of a leader. This paper will analyze different leadership theory concerning my workplace to understand the roles, responsibilities, and functions of a manager in a healthcare organization.
Situational leadership is one of the leadership theories in health care systems. Situational theory perceives the significance of considering the necessities of the laborer, the undertaking, and the circumstance or condition (Rabarison, Ingram & Holsinger, 2013). According to Northouse, (2016), it also relies on the readiness level of the organization in carrying its mandate. As a clinical research organization, it is important to ensure that it guarantees all the investigations and records are conducted on time and submitted to the health care organizations (Cocowitch, Orton, Daniels & Kiser, 2013). Situational leadership theory concentrates on impact in the particular environment and the deep relationship of the leaders with the follower (Schilpzand, De Pater & Erez, 2016). A rising theory includes steady initiative, which expresses that supporting and building associations with workers improve the probability that they will be decidedly impacted and inspired to work towards objectives (Perreira & Berta, 2016). The hypothesis is established on organizational conduct studies that argue that individuals are more joyful and more fulfilled in their work when they have steady leaders who identify an individual level.
Medical care frameworks are made out of various expert gatherings, offices, and forces with multifaceted, nonlinear connections between them. According to Perreira & Berta, (2016), the intricacy of such structures is frequently unparalleled due to the limitations identifying with various multidirectional objectives, and multidisciplinary staff. The clinical research organization needs to be aligned with the different healthcare organizations. That helps to submit the findings as well as validate any findings and hence ensure there is integrity in the system (Cocowitch, Orton, Daniels & Kiser, 2013). In excellent health care associations, the various gatherings with related subcultures may support each other (Erskine, Hunter, Small, Hicks, McGovern, Lugsden, Whitty, Steen & Eccles, 2013). Chatalalsingh & Reeves, 2014) argue that leadership needs to gain by the different qualities inside the association overall and proficiently use assets when planning administration processes while urging the staff to work towards shared objectives (Rabarison, Ingram & Holsinger, 2013). Various authority methodologies can be adjusted to the health care services setting to improve management in this exceptionally complex condition.
The transformational hypothesis goes past the more conventional style of value-based leadership and stresses that individuals work more viable if they have a feeling of mission. The transformational theory obliges leaders to impart their vision in a way that is important, energizing, and makes solidarity and aggregate reason (Perreira & Berta, 2016). The clinical research organizations rely heavily on the transformational leadership. The manager always has to ensure that employees are highly motivated to perform various tasks. Being an organization that reviews case reports from different healthcare organizations, employees need to be motivated and committed to reducing any flaws that may exist in the process (Cocowitch, Orton, Daniels & Kiser, 2013). The chief who is submitted has a vision and can engage others can be portrayed as a transformational leader (Malik, 2012). They can inspire execution past desires through their capacity to impact attitudes. Transformational leadership is highly concerned with the emotions of an individual. Different workers have different feelings while going to work (Hoffman, Woehr, Maldagen-Youngjohn & Lyons, 2011). Transformational leadership theory suggests that the leaders need to identify any problems that happen in their organizations (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman & Humphrey, 2011). They should motivate and inspire the workers positively to ensure that they have the right attitude while going to work. Such a kind of leadership should be distinguished from the transactional leadership which characterizes the encounters that happen between an employee and the managers.
Teamwork is an individual and helpful process that happens when people cooperate towards shared advantage, in a type of beneficial organizational interaction. Team leadership includes conveying data to collaborators and related associations, to permit them to settle on their informed choices. As an organization that reviews systems in the healthcare system, it is important to ensure that teamwork exists in the organization. Communication amongst the team is also very essential amongst the team. Perreira & Berta, (2016) indicates that such collaborative correspondence systems improve health care management by empowering dialogue between various partners. It also allows the sharing of information and encounters as well as decreasing the level of complexity in health care organizations (Malik, 2012). A task from one section is shared with the others, and that ensures there are efficiency and adequate performance. People with different levels of duty need to connect with the leadership procedure, so they are effectively required in approving and imparting needs and different adjustments in practices that might be necessary to address evolving requests.
Team leadership in healthcare requires a synergistic workplace. Wherein numerous groups are urged to cooperate toward the usage of compelling practices and procedures. Such joint efforts advance comprehension of various societies and encourage coordination and interdependence among multiple partners (Erskine et al., 2014). People are brought together by shared dreams and values, and the following synergistic working practices can accomplish results that are more noteworthy than the whole of personal endeavors (Schilpzand, De Pater & Erez, 2016). Leaders should be the first to demonstrate common practices, to raise levels of inspiration, and support interdependency between various human services experts.
In spite of the perceived significance of collaborative working practices, just a little extent of time is spent in the genuine joint effort. Conflict can be an unavoidable drive inside health care organizations and, as flaws in correspondence create and are potentiated, disappointment in working practices can happen (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman & Humphrey, 2011). According to Chatalalsingh & Reeves, (2014), the most widely recognized conflict sources are individualistic conduct inside the organization, poor communication, organizational structures, and between individual or between gathering clashes. Conflict ordinarily develops from basic inert issues and can advance to perceived struggle and in this way to show strife, with the last stage being strife consequence (Perreira & Berta, 2016). The health care leader must embrace an appropriate approach for taking care of contention in all phases with the point of making a positive result for all included (Hoffman, Woehr, Maldagen-Youngjohn & Lyons, 2011). An administrator can use techniques such as avoidance, collaboration, competition mediation as well as seeking consensus.
The sorts of difficulties that clinicians confront when leading within the perplexing setting of a current healthcare service include different and evolving needs, expanding tolerant desires, as well as the high cost of new medications and medicines (Erskine et al., 2014). It obliges clinicians to consider the necessities of the more extensive patient populace, take choices that make the best of assets, as well as convey clinical quality; and actualize clinically-drove benefit upgrades that are probably going to succeed. Perreira & Berta, (2016) indicates that the leadership style that is result oriented concentrates on the procedure of an organization. It suggests authority as having the particular role and abilities essential to convey the coveted consequences of the group given and addressing the necessities of three regions, including individuals, tasks, and teams (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman & Humphrey, 2011). It underlines in building up the position of authority that encourages fruitful and proficient social insurance arrangement. Results, without a doubt, take an essential role in this kind of model.
Various reviews have demonstrated that self-governing health care professionals with direct obligation regarding their patients do not react well to authoritarian leadership to lead exceptionally qualified medical experts. Leadership needs to concentrate on the improvement of compelling community oriented connections through support and assignment designation. Schilpzand, De Pater & Erez, (2016) indicates that this could be the reason for far-reaching usage of the shared leadership in the clinical research center setting, as it energizes shared management, consistent work environment learning, and advancement of powerful working connections. Delivery of work is, therefore, enhanced highly.
Such a kind of leadership is an arrangement of group level management that engages staff in the core administration forms. It offers the open door for people to both oversee and develop a team and is successful at enhancing the workplace and employment fulfillment (Malik, 2012). Active cooperation is vital to the shared administration approach, with attention on recognizing group values and advancing team effectiveness to improve hones. According to Chatalalsingh & Reeves, (2014), shared authority results in particular staff individuals receiving initiative practices, more prominent self-rule, and enhanced patient care results (Hoffman, Woehr, Maldagen-Youngjohn & Lyons, 2011). Barriers to creating shared enterprise can incorporate a weak group ethos, high workload and staff turnover rates, tedious work, as well as the deficient objective setting (Perreira & Berta, 2016). Shared authority is a progressing and liquid process that requires a persistent assessment to be receptive to regularly changing human services challenges, and presumes a decent working connection amongst directors and staff (Dotlich & Cairo, 1999). Whenever organizational and group interrelationships are produced and fostered to accomplish characterized objectives, they can impact the acts of groups and people outside of the center group and furthermore increase the remaining of the gathering inside the organizational hierarchy.
The distribution of tasks and sorting of various data from diverse healthcare organizations requires that obligation and initiative be widely disseminated, and numerous corporations have perceived this by becoming less hierarchical and more collaborative in the approaches of leadership they use. This disseminated leadership approach requires four essential qualities. One of these components is sense making. It is the capacity to comprehend the always showing signs of change business condition and translate the implications of changes inside an association (Hoffman, Woehr, Maldagen-Youngjohn & Lyons, 2011). Perreira & Berta, (2016) argues that it additionally requires relating which is the ability to manufacture putting stock seeing someone, adjust backing with the request, and develop systems of steady compatriots. Visioning is likewise required and is characterized by the production of accurate and convincing pictures of a coveted future that those in the association can work (Erskine et al., 2014). The fourth prerequisite is inventing. It includes making better approaches for moving toward undertakings or conquering apparently difficult issues (Perreira & Berta, 2016). Every one of the four qualities is associated, and leaders need to recognize their particular abilities, qualities, and shortcoming (Dotlich & Cairo, 1999). The leaders will likely make an ethos whereby people can supplement each other’s qualities and counterbalance each other’s shortcoming, with initiative conveyed all through the organization.
Practicing effective leadership can substantially affect the working existences of health care staff as well as the destiny of an association. The leaders need to impact group members by making the exercise caution for unsafe systems, requiring a change in fundamental convictions and values, and affecting choices that support some to the detriment of others (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman & Humphrey, 2011). A leader in a clinical research organization should ensure all the employees understand the ethical practices in the organization. Such a department requires a lot of sensitivity in work delivery. By honing such practices, the leader can impact others to participate in violations of compliance, which has prompted declining open trust (Northouse, 2016). A decent manager must have expectations, qualities, and practices that mean no damage and regard the privileges of all gatherings.
Professional qualities frame the basis for the values that are incorporated into a code of ethics. Such conditions for staff in the organization include the significance of technical competency, patient security, honesty, empathy, and devotion to giving quality services in expert roles (Malik, 2012). Primary leadership criteria for work decisions can incorporate innovative possibility, reasonable cost, principles of care, as well as organizational objectives (Erskine et al., 2014). The ethical decision is the thing that ought to be done, given the competing interests, commitments, and estimations of others required in settling on the choice (Schilpzand, De Pater & Erez, 2016). This paradigm requires the professional to consider values that are past the individual and to consider the qualities and points of view of other people who are included.
The fundamental moral principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice require individuals to do good, not to harm, have self-control as well as being fair respectively. The four are vital to a code of ethics. The systems help in the provision of services to others as well as the protection of individuals information and data (Dotlich & Cairo, 1999). Additionally, they assist in ensuring there is confidentiality between the organization and that the quality of health care services is improved. Chatalalsingh & Reeves, 2014) suggests that a code of ethics also assist in the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration as well as showing loyalty and advocating for changes in the health care system. They are also important in exposing any unethical behaviors in an organization as well as representing the professionalism of an organization to the general public (Hoffman, Woehr, Maldagen-Youngjohn & Lyons, 2011). Health care professionals face a range of ethical problems such as privacy, confidentiality, fraud and the selection and usage of clinical codes. Such problems can be adequately addressed if an organization efficiently utilizes the codes of ethics well. Institutions always need to set up structures that control the conduct of employees before any policies that govern the entire sector are implemented. Leadership principles, therefore, test the effectiveness of a leader in outlining the codes that could guide and motivate the employees. A code of ethics can give prompt direction on what needs to be done in a health care facility.
Path-goal considers the effect of a leader’s behavior on his employee’s fulfillment, inspiration, and effectiveness. Every behavior means to augment the employee results by perceiving the effect of both natural components and employee attributes in employment performance. According to Perreira & Berta, (2016), the achievement-oriented conduct of initiative concentrates on empowering execution magnificence by setting objectives that test workers. Subordinate objectives are intended to encourage high performance, and managers display trust in workers to propel them in meeting implementation goals. The directive path-goal conduct of leaders plans to lessen work equivocalness (Malik, 2012). A leader gives particular desires to employees on assignment performance. The functions that an employee is supposed to handle are clarified for them to provide a high level of conviction on arrangements, guidelines, and methodology (Perreira & Berta, 2016). The schedules and coordination of are also cleared up. The connection between execution objectives and rewards are likewise characterized to keep away from perplexity.
In path-goal theory, the essential worry of the leader conduct is to support a subordinate’s mental prosperity. Reduction of stress and the mitigation of disappointments are of focal significance in these work environment conditions (Northouse, 2016). This may be viable leadership conduct in employments where the positions are physically or mental requesting (Hoffman, Woehr, Maldagen-Youngjohn & Lyons, 2011). The participative leader behavior includes pioneers counseling with workers in regards to inclinations in performing work necessities (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman & Humphrey, 2011). Subordinates are straightforwardly required in the necessary leadership training. One of the implied impacts of the participative leader behavior is that expanded auxiliary self-sufficiency in the decision-making process makes a worker to apply more effort to accomplish the chosen objectives.
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
In modern days, the environment in the health care systems is rapidly changing and becoming a complex field that requires the capacity to oversee and use information viable for many purposes. According to Hunt, (2014), the need to prepare health care professionals to lead the activities in which they are content specialists has turned out to be progressively clear. The leader-member theory is one possible technique for enhancing leadership capacities to meet this test. In spite of the fact that the expanding pace of progress might push the issue, the discourse on management in the clinical facilities has been developing over time (Schilpzand, De Pater & Erez, 2016). The open door and requirement for clinical research organization initiative have been growing, and if credentialed CRO experts do not accept the open door leadership, another person will. If there is an absence of CRO functions, experts from different controls will fill the leadership void and drive the activities that are genuinely best drove by CRO specialists. In addressing to the requirement for leadership, experts note that if this state of mind casings the later parts and elements of CRO experts, the calling overall might be consigned to a subordinate role in the new health care environment (Hoffman, Woehr, Maldagen-Youngjohn & Lyons, 2011). In trying to plan future CRO experts and decide the concentration of proceeding with training for the advantage of current experts, a potential pathway in propelling leadership skills might be the possibility of leadership-member exchange.
The leader-member theory underscores the administration procedure of collaborations amongst leaders and the employees. It attests that leaders have a one of a kind relationship with every supporter, as opposed to one leadership style or technique connected to everybody (Erskine et al., 2014). Leadership on a dyadic level alludes to the successful relationship between a leader and only devotees based on trust, regard, and responsibility (Hunt, 2014). Leader-member exchange theory is not the same as most different theories of leadership, which concentrate just on the leader’s activities or on the circumstance and condition.
Rather than concentrating on one style of leadership or characterized events, the leader-member exchange is an adaptable and individual-based theory. Leaders with significant leader-member exchange relationships with people in their groups have been found to encounter different advantages (Hunt, 2014). The benefits incorporate real team performance, expanded self-adequacy of workers, and employees who take more activity, endeavor to exercise authority to make the work unit more viable, as well as work to get their leaders advanced (Perreira & Berta, 2016). Their workers additionally demonstrate a lower turnover goal and higher job satisfaction and show more positive employee citizenship behaviors. Leaders taking part in these relationships have groups with higher subordinate fulfillment, more prominent worker authoritative responsibility, better employment execution of their units, as well as a lower turnover.
Concentrating on connections amongst leaders and the workers additionally have benefits for those without special supervisory obligations. For those in the primary management who likewise answer to the top leadership (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman & Humphrey, 2011). Individuals with a good leader-member relationship with their chiefs encounter more prominent access to organizational resources from leaders and get more job advantages than those detailing low-quality connections (Hunt, 2014). They additionally encounter more fast profession movement, and higher perceived the authoritative impact of the worker by others. More complex roles are doled out to workers with larger amounts of mutual trust, regard, and commitment to the organization with the manager.
The healthcare sector is very sensitive departments globally. Leadership is one primary factor that is required to ensure that the health care department functions efficiently. Human life depends on the proper management of a health care organization. The clinical research team is one of the key areas in the health sector. Research is required to make sure that health care organizations have adequate information and research on the various problems affecting the industry. Individuals need to be guided to execute their mandate effectively. Leadership skills are, therefore, required in such a situation to ensure that no flaws are experienced. Leadership theories indicate the role that leaders play in the organization. Each approach gives a different perspective on the functions that should be handled by a manager. The analysis, therefore, presents a detailed discussion of the various leadership theories, giving the roles that should be played by the leaders.