Creation vs. Evolution has been an argument going on for a long time, and no one knows a definite answer. I believe in the theory of Evolution, why? Simply because all sciences rely on indirect evidence. The problem with using “theory” in the certain situation, instead of an idea, scientists use to as an explanation of data to prove the truth. The process of finding out evolution takes a lot of time, but scientist rely on the fossil records, common structures, and the distribution of species, and many more ways.
In 1799 an engineer by the name William Smith reported that, fossils were found in a definite forming order, with more modern ones closer to the top. Logically, the bottom layers were laid down earlier, and older than the top layers. Later, in the 1830s his discoveries were confirmed and continued by the paleontologist William Lonsdale. Today, thousands of ancient rock deposits have been found that show the same fossil organisms. Before Darwin, the paleontologists and geologists used the sequence of fossils in rocks not as proof, but as a base for understanding the original sequence of rock. Paleontologists use methods like radiometric dating (measuring the amount of natural radioactive atoms) making it possible to estimate when the rocks and fossils within, were formed. First, the Archaeopteryx was found in Germany in 1861. It’s combination of traits is between non- avian dinosaurs and birds, that clearly places it as a transitional.
It has a long-feathered tail and small teeth like a non- avian dinosaur, but it also has flight feathers and wings, just like a modern bird. The “wish bone” and the collarbone in the Archaeopteryx confirmed the relation between birds and dinosaurs, because they are the only two groups that has those features. Also, scientists believe that whales once walked on land. Fossil evidence from the Pakicetids show that the earliest relatives of whales were small land mammals. The Pakicetid was found in Pakistan and lived about 50 years ago (Eocene). A whale and the Pakicetid are linked through its unique inner ear shape. Whales are the only animal known to have such an enhanced region of the ear (auditory bulla). Some other fossil whale relatives that were likely amphibious on land and sea were the Ambulocetid (short limbs and large feet) and Redingotes (lived in fresh water). Scientists also believe that the Batillariids lived 40 million years ago and the first known aquatic whale that made their permanent transition to the ocean.
Scientists also use common structures as a base to find out about evolution. Paleontologists use comparative anatomy to understand common descent. The anatomy of humans, mice, and bats are surprisingly very similar, even though they have very different ways of life and different environments. The connection of the animals can be observed in every part of the body. They can all be very similar; yet a person writes, a mouse runs, and bats fly. These three animals have structures that are built of bones that are different in detail but similar general structure and relation to each other, scientists call this homology structures. Homologies have been concluded that they are best explained by common descent. Scientists, usually anatomists investigate homologies not only in bone structures, but other parts of the body.
Conclusions from anatomists give inferences about evolution, and inferences about comparisons with the sequence of ancestry, that can be tested in the forms of paleontological records (mainly focusing on the record of the past life through evidence in rocks). Also, the ear and jaw of a mammal are parts of the body paleontologist and comparative anatomists to show common descent through transition. The lower jaw of any mammal contains only one bone, and reptiles have several. The reptile jaw is also homologous with bones discovered in a mammal’s ear. A therapsid, is a mammal- like reptiles that was discovered by paleontologists. The jaw of a therapsid consist of a double jaw joint, one with bones that is in a mammal’s jaw, the other one with bone that over time became a hammer and anvil of a mammal’s ear. Comparative anatomy also explains why a lot of structures from organisms are not perfect. An organism is not perfectly adapted because they are modified from inherited structures already. The fact that structures cannot be perfect is evidence for evolution.
Biogeography gives evidence for decent from common ancestors. Today there is about 250,000 species of plants, 100,000 species of fungi, and one million species of animals, and every single organism has its own environment, and ways of living, and we are nowhere close to discovering every organism that exists. Certain organisms, in this case, humans and dogs can adapt and survive in a wide range of environments. On the other hand, some are so specialized and limited, for example; fungi. Laboulbenia is a type of fungus that grows on the back of a single beetle found only in the caves of southern France. Another example, a certain larva from a fly can only grow in specific grooves beneath the third oral appendages of a land crab, that is only located in the Caribbean islands. Present, living species and local fossils are being tested to see whether their structures are similar or not.
Once again, evolution is not a fact and yet has to be proved but is a theory that has multiple ways that scientist, anatomist, and paleontologists have discovered very accurate evidence behind it. Fossil records, distribution of species, and common structures are some of the evidence that have been looked through and proved over a long period of time. I truly believe that evolution will one day be proved by definite facts.
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