Evolution of Earth

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All over modern-day Earth there is evidence, some which has been discovered, and others that have yet to be discovered that prove the most incontrovertible theory of evolution is indeed a fact. The Earth has been evolving ever since its creation in the Hadean time period. During the Hadean time period, Earth was merely large clouds of gas and dust. During this time, there were small rock debris everywhere, which were sucked in by larger rocks and colliding together to form as one, which resulted in planetesimals. Planetesimals collided with each other, which eventually came together to form the early Earth. Scientists have evidence that Earth was formed by planetesimals colliding because of the rocks they have found have also been found near asteroid craters, which indicates that Earth was formed by asteroids that formed the planetesimals that crashed into Earth. Early in Earth’s history, Earth collided with a small mars-sized planet. This collision resulted in the formation of the moon, as well as the differentiation of the crust. After the first atmosphere was created, the differentiation of the Earth’s crust resulted in a magnetic field to be developed to protect Earth from solar radiation and winds. The first amounts of water on Earth came from continuous bombardments of asteroids and meteors. Water is essential for life.

First life came in the form of single-celled bacteria in the oceans. These bacteria evolved to use photosynthesis in the atmosphere to turn carbon dioxide into oxygen, a gas that can sustain life. Banded iron formations are all over the world, and these formations can be used as evidence to support the claim that bacteria evolved to use photosynthesis in the atmosphere to turn carbon dioxide into oxygen. Because of all the oxygen now in the atmosphere, the ozone layer was formed. Multicellular life in the form of Eukaryotic cells came into the picture around this time as the result of oxygen in the atmosphere. We know Eukaryotic cells consume oxygen, so there is no doubt that Eukaryotic cells were the result of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earth went into a period of microevolution for the next 1.8 billion years, as not many major events occured.

Two supercontinents (Columbia, Rodinia) broke up as the result of the movement of tectonic plates. Approximately 600-700 million years ago was when the first glaciation occurred. Glaciation is when land changes in any way as the result of glaciers. Major evidence that supports glaciation is rock patterns found in Osmussaar, Estonia. These rock patterns show signs of erosion, which are specific to erosion patterns from glaciation. The eroded rocks are found near northern Poland coast, but these rocks were found about 500 miles away in Estonia, which shows signs of glacial drift. The Phanerozoic Eon, the latest eon, features three large eras (Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic). A mass extinction marks the end of each era. At the end of the Paleozoic Era was The Great Dying due to massive volcano eruptions and at the end of the mesozoic was the extinction of the dinosaurs by a large 10 kilometer asteroid. Scientists use radiometric dating and relative dating to analyze the rock around the dinosaur fossil and find out the age of the rocks in order to figure out the age of the fossil. At the end of every era was a mass extinction. But what about our current era? The first mass extinction was because of massive volcanic eruptions while the second was because of a 10 kilometer asteroid. According to UK scientists, at current rates, by 2050, over 50% of Earth’s natural resources will be deplenished. If the human population can salvage and effectively use natural resources, we might last longer than currently expected.

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Evolution of Earth. (2021, Apr 08). Retrieved February 22, 2024 , from

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