Wormholes were first predicted to exist in 1916. A physicist by the name of Ludwig Flamm was going over Karl Schwarzschild report which presented a solution for Einstein’s field equations. Schwarzschild solutions resulted in a black hole. It was ultimately named after Schwarzschild, the ‘Schwarzschild black hole.” Ludwig came up with the ‘white hole.” It’s always been theorized that black holes could typically hold a wormhole. They could hold the way to travel to a parallel universe or other parts of the universe we know right now. But how do we know which black hole could be used to achieve this and how do black holes even form? A Stars core produces its energy by using millions of tons of hydrogen and turns it into helium this process happens every second. After its hydrogen supply runs out it switches to the helium stockpiles it created and turns it into carbon. For some stars like our sun, the last step is fusing helium with carbon and turns it into oxygen. The core is left as a high helium-rich core, which will gradually cool down over time. At this stage our sun will inevitably become a white dwarf because it will continue to pump out radiation, therefore it will not collapse.
But stars that are about 10 to 50 times the mass of our sun don’t stop the fusing of elements there. They continue will continue fusing elements like silicon, aluminum, potassium, until they finally get to iron. Since iron cannot be fused together to create a specific element. It will stop pumping out its radiation almost instantly and because of this, gravity will begin to collapse the core of the star into an infinitely small singularity. As this happens, the escape velocity becomes so great that even light cannot escape and now, we have a black hole. A black hole like the Schwarzschild black hole is a non-spinning black hole, this means that its core is not spinning. With this type of black hole, we would not be able to use as a wormhole because it has a singularity at its origin.
A singularity is in the center of a black hole. It is one dimensional and has an immense amount of mass. If anyone would try to go into a black hole, they would be instantly spaghettify. Spaghettify means you are stretched vertically and compressed horizontally. This happens because of the gravitational force of the black hole. If anyone would make it to the origin of a Schwarzschild black hole the person would still die. The infinitely small singularity would still kill the person because the person would crash into it at high-speed thanks to the gravitational force. Then we have another black hole called the Kerr Blackhole. The Kerr Black hole is a rotating black hole. This happens when a star is rotating as it collapses. The core will continue to rotate, and this is how you get a Kerr black hole. It got its name from Roy Kerr a New Zealand Mathematician. Roy Kerr came up with a solution to Einstein’s general theory of relativity. The Kerr black hole, in theory, is more likely to contain a wormhole. The reason being is the singularity in its center is a ring singularity.
A ring singularity may present a possible way into a wormhole. Although this is all a theoretical. It is reasonably believed that if a spaceship could go exactly through the ring without crashing into it, it could come out through what is known a ‘white hole”. Unlike black holes which capture everything in their surroundings, a white hole would eject everything out of itself and no one can fall or try to go inside of it. In 1935 Einstein and a Physicist by the name of Nathan Rosen employed Einstein’s general relativity theory and both came up with the idea of ‘bridges”. These bridges could be used to travel through the universe. They would be connected to two different points in space-time which could allow shortcuts. Put differently, these ‘bridges” could reduce the time it would take to travel distances in space. But even if you successfully went to a wormhole, where exactly would you end up? Since we still don’t really know much about them, even if we somehow went into one, we wouldn’t know where we would end up. It’s said that wormholes could be used to create shortcuts to other locations in the universe. These shortcuts would allow us to go faster than the speed of light to travel through the galaxy. Some unanswerable problems do inevitably arise when it comes to wormholes and their stability.
First, if any worm-whole does exist in the universe, they would be at a microscopic level. About the measurements of 10-33 centimeters. Meaning we would need to figure out a way to expand them for humans and or spaceships to travel through them. Secondly, wormholes are believed to be extremely unstable. Meaning that if anything would inevitably try to go through them, they would instantly collapse and trap anything or anyone inside. The only way to stable them would be to use exotic matter. Exotic matter is basically negative matter. It’s not exactly known what causes negative matter, or what it even contains. Dark matter is another component that could help form wormholes, when mixed with a supermassive black hole. Although just like negative matter, not much is known is about dark matter. It is invisible, and no one has been able to measure it. Our galaxy has a supermassive black hole named ‘Sagittarius A” about 4 million times the mass of our sun. It is in the center of our galaxy. The Milky Way’s galaxy halo is believed to have dark matter in it. If any dark matter goes or has gone into that black hole, we just might have a wormhole a measly 25,000 light years away from us.
Time travel is a phenomenon that has always been presented in movies. Movies like the terminator, Star Trek, Back to the Future, and so many more. It’s always been a non-fiction concept, but now scientists are predicting it may not be science fiction after all. Its predicted if we could go faster than the speed of light, we can possibly time travel. One way we could time travel is using wormholes. We would have to manipulate the openings to be able to time travel. The idea would be that we would have to get one opening of a wormhole going close to the speed of light. The other opening would be just be the normal opening. But because one is going faster than the other, not only would we get from Point A to Point B we could end up from one moment into another meaning the past. If we wanted to get back into the present, we would have to enter the wormhole from Point B to get to Point A again. But it’s said that travelling to the past is extremely difficult but not impossible compared to travelling in the future. Why? Well because then paradoxes can happen. Let’s take the wormhole again as an example. Let’s also use Stephen Hawking’s the ‘mad scientist paradox.”
The paradox starts with a scientist who has created a wormhole that could go 1 minute back in time. He decides he is going to shoot himself through the worm hole. He can see himself one minute in the past. The paradox then goes to say ‘He’s now dead. So who fired the shot?” It goes on to explain how the scientist will never find him self in this kind of situation. The reason being is because of the wormhole. It would collapse before anything got across it. This would happen because of feedback. Just like in a concert, when the artist is singing sound goes into the microphone, it proceeds through the wires and into the amplifier and finally comes out through the speakers. If there is too much sound the from the speaker going back into the microphone, it will end up in a loop, the sound will get louder which will eventually break the speaker. The same thing could be said for the wormhole. But instead of sound it will be radiation. Because of the wormholes gravity it will attract natural radiation into itself. This will continue into a loop which will destroy the wormhole. Another paradox is called the grandfather paradox. In this paradox you would go back in time, kill your grandfather and then you aren’t born. But if you’re never born then how can you go back to kill your grandfather. This is a paradox. There are ‘solutions” for this paradox, when you go back into the past, you don’t travel to your past but a parallel past. But a paradox like this and the mad scientist paradox is why many believe that travelling back in time will never be possible.
Traveling to the future is a different story. It is already believed that we can travel to the future, of course if we had the technology. Thanks to Time Dilation this may be possible. Time Dilation means the faster you move through space, the slower you move through time. Its theorized that if someone traveled away from earth at light speed, his or her time would be moving at a slower rate, but on earth time would still move at the same rate of speed. So once the person returned to earth then he would of technically traveled into the future because for him time moved slow.
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