What is Global Warming According to Scientific View

Global warming is that the average temperature of the Earth’s aerosphere keeps increasing. The increasing in the amount of energy in the form of heat hitting the earth that is emitted from the sun that is being trapped in the atmosphere and not transfer out into space. The Earth’s atmosphere acts like a greenhouse and captures the Sun’s heat, making sure that the earth has temperatures that allows the emergence of life forms for example humans, plants and animals. Without the atmosphere the earth would be very cold.

Global warming, however, is the equivalence of a greenhouse but with highly efficiency reflective glass installed in the wrong way. The best evidence of this may come from a terrible cooling event that took place about 1,500 years ago. And massive volcano eruption that happened twice, one year after another which produced so much black dust into the upper atmosphere and cause little sunlight to penetrate in to the Earth.

When the temperatures drop. Crops start to fail, people died of starvation and animals start to die too. As the dust slowly fell onto the Earth, the Sun was able to warm up the world again and life returned to normal. But now, we have the opposite problem. Nowadays, the problem is not that too little of the Sun’s warmth is reaching the earth, but the opposite that too much is being trapped in our atmosphere. So the amount of heat is being kept inside the Earth’s atmosphere increases that the temperature of the earth is rising up faster than that at any previous time in history. NASA is now providing an excellent course global warming. And there is a more simpler definition for global warming. Over the past 60 years, the average global temperature increased at a fast rate throughout history.

Specialist observe this trend that is accelerating. According to NASA’s 134-year record that one of the 16 hottest years have occurred since the year 2001.Climate change deniers argued that there has been a slowdown in the rising of global temperatures, but recent studies show that, the theory was disapproved and environmentalist said that if we do not control the emissions of greenhouse gases, the average temperature in the United States could increase up to 20 degrees over the next few centuries. What is Carbon Dioxide and How it is Formed Carbon Dioxide is a colourless gas with faint, sharp odour and sour taste. It is a minor compound in the Earth’s Atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide can be form in many different ways like combustion of carbon containing products, fermentation and respiration of living organisms.

The presence of carbon dioxide in the aerosphere will trap some of the radiant energy received by the Earth from the Sun and preventing it to return to outer space. Hence producing greenhouse effect. In standard temperatures Carbon Dioxide is unreactive when the temperature rises above 1700°C it partially decomposes into Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen. Hydrogen or Carbon also convert into Carbon Monoxide at high temperatures. Ammonium Carbamate is formed under pressure by reacting Carbon Dioxide with Ammonia. Ammonia Carbamate is then converted to urea which is an important component in fertilizers and plastics.

Carbon Dioxide is slightly soluble in water and forms a weakly acidic solution. Carbon Dioxide is used as a refrigerant in fire extinguishers, inflating life rafts and life jackets, blasting coal, foaming rubber and promoting the growth of plants in greenhouses.

History of the greenhouse effect and global warming In the early 1820 Joseph Fourier a French Mathematician and Physician said that the energy reaching the Earth in the form of sunlight must be equal to the energy returning to space because it emits radiation. He proposed that the thin air covering the Earth- Aerosphere acts like a glass and heat is trapped inside it like a greenhouse.

In 1896 Svante Arrhenius a Swedish Scientist proposed that fossil fuel combustion may eventually lead to global warming. He then established a relation between the temperature and the concentration of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. He found out that the average temperature on the surface of the Earth was 15oC he suggested that the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide will cause the temperature to rise by 5oC. He and Thomas Chamberlin calculated that human activities will add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and eventually make the Earth warmer. In the 1940s the development of infrared spectroscopy proved that the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide results in the increase in infrared radiation and water vapour will absorb different types of radiation than carbon dioxide.

In 1955 Gilbert Plass concluded that the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would intercept the infrared radiation by lost to space and hence warming up the Earth. In 1960 Charles Keeling used modern technologies to produce concentration curves for the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at Antarctica and Mauna Loa. The curves show that the trend of global temperature is downward from 1940 to 1970.

In 1980 the average temperature of the globe started to rise and in the late 1980 the curve began to increase steeply and started the global warming trend. In 1988 the temperature was warmer than in the last few years. In 1990 scientists started to do research on the greenhouse effect. In 1998 Kyoto, Japan the Kyoto Protocal was negotiated. This Protocal requires participating countries to reduce their emission on greenhouse gasses by at least 5% and the protocal is practiced from 2008 to 2012. The Kyoto Protocal was signed in 2001 by 186 countries.

From 1988 onwards the perspective of people on greenhouse effect started to change resulting in the influences from the media. The term greenhouse effect was used fewer and therefore fewer people started to refer to the theory as it is global warming or just climate change. Causes of Global Warming There are a lot of activities that us humans do that causes global warming but we are just no concern about it. The first activity that us humans do that cause global warming is travel and transportation. Majority of our vehicles on the road, air and water are powered by fossil fuels for example gasoline and petroleum. As the fuel is burnt while powering the engines it releases Carbon Dioxide gas and other pollutants like Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen oxides and Sulphur Dioxide.

In 2016 transportation was a major contributor to the United States in greenhouse gas emission. When the greenhouse gases are trapped within the aerosphere causes the temperature to rise. The second activity is industrialization. The transformation of agricultural based economy to industrial economy is also one of the more earlier cause of global warming. Researchers has shown that Industrial Revolution kick started global warming all around the world. The third activity is deforestation. Every year million acres of trees are logged and harvested into paper, furniture and also forest cleared for agricultural activities. Forests store an enormous amount of carbon dioxides as trees remove carbon dioxides and transform them into oxygen gas. Hence preventing the carbon dioxide from being trapped in the aerosphere.

The forth activity that humans do is excessive use of electricity. In the United States most houses use fossil fuel and natural gas to generate electricity. Now in the 21st century it is hard to live without electricity so electricity is largely used that means more natural gas and fossil fuel will be consumed and more carbon dioxide will be released to the aerosphere. Today people are trying to reduce the use of electricity by turning it off when not used but almost 50% of the devices still draw electricity even though it is turned off. Last but not least is the use of Aerosol which is a cloud of solid or liquid particles. For example spray paints, hairsprays and dispensers. It has been forbidden in many countries as it is filled with gases like Carbon Dioxide and Methane also Chlorofluorocarbons which can corrode the ozone layer.

Lastly, is the ability to find replacement product are hard. Scientists are researching for a replacement for fossil fuel and other non-renewable sources. Recently Scientist and Technologists has found a new source to power car engines that is by using solar energy to replace petroleum, but it is still in construction and undergoing tests. In conclusion the main causes of global warming is too much Carbon Dioxide trapped in the aerosphere. Effect of Global Warming Global Warming can cause a lot of trouble nowadays that effects our everyday life. First and foremost, global warming causes extreme increase in temperature.

The mean temperature on the surface of the Earth is about 15oC and is increasing by about 0.8oC every year according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The second effect is the extreme weathers occurring. Global warming causes some of the hottest summers and coldest winters. For example the one of the hottest summer in Taiwan in 2013 and coldest winters in 2018. Other extreme weathers are typhoons. A massive typhoon occurred in 2018 at Mangkhut. Scientist estimated that heat waves, drought, blizzards and rainstorms will occur more frequently due to global warming. The third effect is the increase in ocean level and acidification of it. As the temperature increases the ice starts to melt and therefore rises the sea level.

Since 1870 the sea level has been rise to about 8 inches and the rate is expected to accelerate in the following years. If this scenario keeps happening many coastal areas like Maldives and some small islands around India will soon vanish. Not only that the increase in sea level will also cause many countries which are closed to the oceans experience Tsunamis.

Recent research shows that after 100 years the mean sea level will be 2.3 feet higher in New York, 2.9 feet higher in Hamptons Road and 3.5 feet higher in Galveston Texas. Well not only the sea level is changing but also its acidity. As the carbon dioxide level increases, some of the carbon dioxide gas is absorbed by the seawater. When carbon dioxide is dissolved in water carbonic acid is produced and causes large impact on marine life. Lastly global warming will also effect the ecosystem. The increase in temperature causes some extreme weather as mentioned above and they may lead to many deaths of animals and plants which disrupts the normal ecosystem.

How Carbon Dioxide Causes Global Warming In significance when so much Carbon Dioxide remains in the aerosphere as Carbon Dioxide is the most important gas in controlling the Earth’s temperature. Carbon Dioxide, Methane and halocarbons are greenhouse gases that will absorb a wide range of energy including infrared energy which is heat emitted by the Earth. The re-emitted energy travels out in all directions but some eventually returns to the Earth where it helps heat up the Earth’s surface. Without greenhouse gasses the Earth will be cold but with too many greenhouse gasses the Earth will be hot as Venus where the greenhouse aerosphere maintains the Earth temperature around 400°C. Nowadays, scientists found out the wavelengths that each greenhouse gas absorb and the concentration of the gases in the aerosphere and calculate how much gas contributes to global warming. Carbon Dioxide causes about 20%, water vapour causes 50% and clouds contributes 25% but the rest is caused by small particle and minor greenhouse gases like Methane.

Water Vapour concentrations in the atmosphere are controlled by the Earth’s temperature. Warmer temperatures evaporate more water from the ocean, air masses expand and cause higher humidity. Carbon Dioxide has wider range of atmospheric temperature than water. Carbon Dioxide molecules provide the initial greenhouse heating used to maintain temperature. When Carbon Dioxide concentration decreases, the Earth starts to cool and some of the water vapour falls out of the atmosphere and the greenhouse warming is caused by the water droplets. When Carbon Dioxide concentration increases the air temperature goes up and more water evaporates into the atmosphere which then causes heating of greenhouse. Then scientists found out that Carbon Dioxide is the gas that controls the temperature.

The amount of Carbon Dioxide sets the amount of water vapour in the aerosphere and thus the size of greenhouse effect. Due to the increase in Carbon Dioxide concentration the Earth is starting to heat up. Simultaneously, the greenhouse effect starts to increase and the mean global temperature has risen 0.8°C since 1880. The rise in temperature isn’t all the reason according to the current Carbon Dioxide concentration. Global Warming happens in a long period of time because the ocean also helps to soak up heat.

This means the Earth’s surface temperature will increase at least another 0.6°C because of the Carbon Dioxide that is already in the aerosphere. The degree in which the Earth’s temperature goes up depends on the Carbon Dioxide that humans release in the future. Why Carbon Dioxide Is the Main Reason for Global Warming There are a few reasons why Carbon Dioxide is the main reason for emission of Global Warming. First is that Carbon Dioxide exists in the largest concentration compared to other greenhouse gasses and has a longer life time.

Recently human activities have continued to rise the concentration of Carbon Dioxide and has contributed to the emission of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) which are heat trapping gasses. It is clear that the large proportion of Carbon Dioxide is emitted from generating electricity, followed by the sum of agricultural activities, land use and forestry. Moreover, burning fossil fuels stem from electricity production, industry and residential buildings adds up to 66% of the global emission of Carbon Dioxide. Therefore the world is in dire need of clean and efficient energy to reduce the impact of climate change. By transition from fossil fuels to more renewable energies for instance could be the best measure to decrease greenhouse effect and simultaneously reduce the impact of climate change. With proper precautions and procedures the rate of global warming can be maintained and reduced.

Conclusion

The increase in the atmospheric Carbon Dioxide concentration is largely be considered as the main reason of global warming. The role of Carbon Dioxide in the relation to temperature increases and more generally in relation to Earth’s lie through the geological aeons. Moreover, there are some data that show that Carbon Dioxide is the main reason for example using forecasts about the correlation between the concentration of Carbon Dioxide and temperature. The data indicated that whether it will cause a gentle or severe global warming. Through a further research and discussions some people think that not all Carbon Dioxide is a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that Carbon Dioxide stimulates the growth of plants and some palaeoclimatology shows that Carbon Dioxide content in the aerosphere is at minimum in the geological aeon. Finally, it is stressed that the main causes of global warming still remains unsolved and there are no precise answers for it.

References Articles

  1. Georgios A. Florides, Environment International, Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 390-401
  2. Maslin, M., Global Warming, a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004
  3. Judith Lean, “Cycles and trends in solar irradiance and climate,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, vol. 1, January/February 2010, 111-122

Internet 

  1. https://solarimpulse.com/global-warming-solutions?gclid=Cj0KCQiAzePjBRCRARIsAGkrSm6g2yZRmScbL4XU_aBKfkeOzdng0O2RS6r-4V6qL2Ssdrl-H23aO8oaAnrDEALw_wcB 
  2. https://www.history.com/topics/natural-disasters-and-environment/history-of-climate-change 
  3. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases

Books 

  1. Y K RICHARD, DAVID TAN, Pre-U STPM Text Biology Term 3 2. The Discovery of Global Warming By Spencer R. Weart Harvard University Press, 2003
  2. Climate and the Oceans By Geoffrey K. Vallis Princeton University Press, 2012

Reference

  1. Chap. 7 “Global Warming and the Ocean” Journals Updating Our Understanding of Climate Change in the North Atlantic: The Role of Global Warming and the Gulf Stream By O’Hare, Greg Geography, Vol. 96, Spring 2011
  2. In Hot Water: Global Warming Takes a Toll on Coral Reefs By Schmidt, Charles W Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 116, No. 7, July 2008 Aerosol Production By Region Or Country (Millions of Units, 2017) U.S Brazil Europe China Argentina 3842 1207 5766 2123 932 Share Of All U.S Commuters By Mode Of Transit Driving Alone Public Transport Carpooling Cycling Walking Taxi or Motorcycle Worked From Home 0.76 0.09 5.0999999999999997E-2 6.0000000000000001E-3 2.7E-2 1.2E-2 0.05 Change In Annual CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion 2000 to 2016 U.S U.K India China -0.15 -0.28999999999999998 1.35 1.9 1
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