Types of Conspiracy Theories

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Conspiracy theories have been around for centuries and will likely be around long after we are gone. While it is not known whether or not any of these theories are true, there are many people who fervently believe in them. Some people would say that these theories are excuses people make because they don’t want to accept the truth. There are many who would disagree with that statement. Conspiracy theorists would say that the statement about not wanting to "accept the truth" is just another way the organizations like the Illuminati cover up their existence. Although we have no idea what is true and what is false when it comes to conspiracy theories, we do have the opportunity to examine and analyze them in order to gain a better understanding of them. That is exactly what this paper will do.

The Western Democracy article "Who Are The Globalist," is a collaboration with a group who claims to have insight on people with globalist agendas, what they stand for, and what kind of "horrifying plans" they have for the world in the future. The article starts off by saying "Simply put, the globalist movement is an alliance based on self-interest of the private international financiers and the royal, dynastic and hereditary land owning families of Britain, Europe and America which over the years have intermarried to create a self regenerating power structure that through lies and deception seeks to control everything and everyone on earth." This introduces the reader to their main belief. This article does in fact contain conspiracy theories; Without displaying names, they specifically talk about the Illuminati. It claims that these rich and royal European families are intermarrying to accumulate more power and wealth. They are regenerating power through structure, and a deception of lies, to seek control over everything in the world. It then claims that they have extended their network of control to include other elite families from other countries all around the world for the same outcome, to be in the center of society, corporations, media, culture, education, medical help, the law, and the government.

The type of conspiracy it portrays, is the anxiety over globalization, and the centralized power over the state of Democracy in America. It is the theory of expression of distrust in the people outside of ??the group’ specifically the coup of elite families; the Illuminati. This theory fits in all of the Four Hallmarks: A group of people, acting in secret, altering institutions to usurp power and hiding the truth to gain utility, and all in the name of common good. The publisher states, "But of course its never a simple matter. Many of those involved are not privy to the inner workings and aims of the core group Think of it as rings within rings within rings with only those at the very center understandings its true aims and intent". This quote reveals the levels of the Illuminati; the outside group that peels into the inner group that controls everything. Explaining that there are layers to this cult, that there is the outside circle, also known as the puppets of the group, who do what they are told, although they do not have much of an idea about what is going on. Celebrities accused of being part of this group are: Madonna, Katy Perry, Lady Gaga, and Jay Z and Beyonce. These artist are accused of influencing secret messages to their audience. Then there are the billion-dollar corporations controlling the puppets, like the advertising and entertainment companies, as well as grocery companies. These corporations have a better view of the purpose. Many layers in-between is the middle of the circle, the elite families like the Rothschild's, who are accused of working their way to owning countries around Asia.

The audience who believe in this theory and the Illuminati are the underhand. These people are most likely a hyper-reactive group who belong in the left perspective of the political spectrum, attacking the powerful elite group. From my research and perspective, not all these people are properly educated. They believe that the world is in danger, that all aspects of the world are slowly being taken over, like: society as a whole, corporations, media, culture, education, medical help, the law, and the government. "If we don't stop them, will result in the complete enslavement of humanity over the coming decades once and for all (at least for those of us who unlike them have a conscience). If they are successful, there will be no turning back as they will eliminate those who do not serve them and the state and replace us with new improved genetically engineered servants". Conspiracy theories are hard to define, because scholars all have a different ways of explaining them. They also come in different versions and forms, some may be kind of outlandish, and others can be realistic. Daniel Pipes, American historian and commentator, says that conspiracy theories are nonsexist versions of conspiracies, that they are not real. On the other hand, Floyd Rodmen says that conspiracy theories are fact-based research by ordinary people who find gaps in the official explanation of events. After watching many YouTube videos explaining many theories about the Illuminati, I believe that these people are all ordinary people, trying to make sense of the the media, and the messages they are trying to signal to their audience.

The Illuminati conspiracy migrated from Europe to America. With them, we encounter a particular type of conspiracy theory: The Strategic Foreign Conspiracy to undermine American Democracy. The central belief is that a domestic faction is actively collaborating with a foreign power to undermine American Democracy. Due to the fact that American Democracy is exemplary, other states are afraid of its attraction to their own populations. The writer explains the history of this family, "A Conspiratorial View of History as Explained by the Conspirators Themselves" provides a valuable insight into the elite's plan for continued domination. This discussion is by no means the end all be all in understanding the elite but is a necessary and vital primer on the history and goals of the elite". At the end of the article, it also explains, "To fully recognize who they are and what their goals require are an extensive study of history and everyone is encouraged to read their books and do your own research on all topics discussed. On this website we seek to expose them by referencing their own works and those of tireless researchers over the past several decades so that you might come to understand more fully the world in which you live and that you might come to break the conditioning provided by these social engineers and envision for yourself a very different possible world".

As rational or irrational this theory might seem, the history and the longevity of the American theory comes from conspiracy culture, where conspiracies are widely spread and believed. It is the fact that these Americans have become prone to the worst, they have been taught to prepare for the worst in the world they live in. The distrust has become our default mode. That results in something called the epistemic panic, to find ourselves on the edge of everything. Although, British Philosopher and Professor, Karl Propper says that conspiracy theories are irrational, and not a right way to look at the world. His reasons are based on his theories of Psychologism, peoples intentions being central to the outcome of other peoples actions.

For example, doing something with the purpose of bringing the worst out of another person’s reactions, evil intentions that lead to bad outcomes. Then he explains the fact that people do not take into account the unintended consequences. An example of this in modern American history would be, the Playboy model that was against vaccines for children, she believed the conspiracy theory that medical companies purposely add a hormone to the shot that leads to children developing autism and down syndrome. Another example is The Feminist movement, fighting for women’s work, and pay. Leading to the outcome of inefficient economic difference in households. Finally, Propper lists the lack of falsification in conspiracy theories, how there is no room for gaps, unlike scientific theories. The way conspiracists look at the world is also rational, due to the fact that they look at every detail, and take it all into account. There is no room for gaps, everything is relevant. Unlike scientific theories where there is room for gaps, to prove evidence to find the right answer, to prove the scientist wrong, and give him space to allow himself more research. On the other hand, everything in conspiracy theories is hyper-rational.

Note, that the group who wrote the Western Democracy article, did not have their names documented. "Who Are The Globalist," have proven to make their beliefs rational along with details, with the freedom of being anonymous, and being able to express their believes and opinions. "There are, however, a number of very important distinctions between now and then. First, they are much better organized today than they have been in the past as you shall discover. Second, they have and are using advanced psychological/propaganda techniques which they are applying through the mass media (culture creation - TV, radio, video games, music, fashion) and the educational system. Third, the elite now has an arsenal of technology far more advanced than they tell the general public that they are using covertly and will use more overtly in the future to attempt to ensure their dominance". They even influence their audience to do their own research, "To fully recognize who they are and what their goals require an extensive study of history and everyone is encouraged to read their books and do your own research on all topics discussed."

America is a country where culture is based on the Universalist idea of enlightenment, the ideal idea of natural rights and that every individual human being is equal to the other. The central tenet and belief come from a sacred text, American constitution. The belief is that every individual has the freedom to express themselves and equality. This leads us to the question, of utopia vs dystopia, Should America be tame or should it lead us to the future? This is a breaking point in social interpretation. What does it say about politics? and how American Media represents reality? an example can be to create something fake as if its a reality, fictional or truthful? What does it say about authenticity? American culture is not authentic, it's superficial.

Conspiracy theories in the Middle East can be compared to American conspiracies, due to the fact that both countries are widely open to conspiracy theories, and the theories are wildly believed in both places. According to Professor Arabzadeh’s Conspiracy Theories class, she informs us about the life in the Middle East and conspiracy theories that take place there. Her lecture notes state, "We know about Syria that men engage in conspiracy theorizing more than women and conspiracy theorists are educated, people. Conspiracy talk is a form of entertainment and gives the narrator a chance to assert their creativity and power of persuasion". Conspiracy theories in the Middle East do not have ??exotic’ content such as lizards and aliens and have more political plots as well. Although conspiracy plots in America are on a smaller scale compared to the ones in the Middle East, America is always a big part to their conspiracies. Their plots always contain theories of cults planning to overthrow the government, a secret military coup, all leading to fundamental transformations in power relating to the mass exile of populations, and civil religious wars.

In the Middle Eastern news article, "Hurriyet Daily News," they report a political issue of foreign chefs, specifically from England and Italy, traveling through Turkey, engaging in spy activities, gathering political information on Turkey from the innocent people, while supposedly traveling around the country for their T.V show. The guest speaker of the newscast, Chief Presidential Adviser Yi??it Bulut reports, "I watched a program on a news station the other day. An Englishman and an Italian were sampling the tastes of Anatolia and traveling to many provinces and villages, cooking food. Do you think they are doing that for their own benefit?". This quote is a perfect example to show how America plays a bigger role in Middle Eastern conspiracy theories, showing an imbalance between the two countries. Historian Douglass Little explains the reasoning behind behind the imbalance, he says "This imbalance is a reflection of the general power of imbalance between America and the Middle East."

Due to historical context, the fear of dictatorship will always be an issue in Middle Eastern conspiracy theories. The Middle East has always had a problem with secret military groups invading the government, political mobilization, overthrowing the king, exile of populations, civil and religious wars, and finally ordinary rights taken away over the years. Some examples of these issues over the time are past events like: The Ottoman Rule, Britain Seizing control over the state of Iraq, The Iraqi war, and when the Military commander Reza Khan seized power and was later crowned Reza Shah Pahlavi. These are some of the many key characteristics of the Middle Eastern conspiracy theory; foreign powers controlling/ scheming to control the minorities. This leads us to the next question, is this conspiracy theory true? Is it rational?

This Pro-Government broadcaster is self-victimizing the country of Turkey, saying that they are being scammed, and taken advantage of. The article states "The president’s chief adviser claimed that TV chefs were ??taking advantage of pure-minded Anatolian people’ and their hospitality, collecting information about military bases and industrial facilities under the guise of cooking shows ??Our people are pure, they are opening their doors to friends. They tell all their secrets, they show everything: Where is the military unit, the radar, the ammunition, the weapons warehouse, how to enter and leave the village,’ he added." There is a strong possibility that this conspiracy theory is false. Professor Arbabzadeh’s lectures and powerpoint slides teach us that "Middle Eastern States themselves narrate and spread conspiracy theories with the goal of legitimizing rule and distracting attention away from their own failures. This is done through creating ??false dilemmas’ which is also a characteristic of conspiracy theories." Chief presidential adviser Yi??it Bulut added this in his claim as well urging citizens not to think that he was exaggerating or making up conspiracy theories with his claim. This shows us that the conspiracy theory in this article may or may not be a hoax.

My Uncle Chosro who was born and raised in Iran during the late sixties early seventies, says he faced many different kinds of racist conspiracy theories against Jews. He says, "Growing up in Iran as a Persian Jew, it was not safe. My parents would keep track of everywhere I would go, and pay attention to what I would listen to on the radio. They did not want me and my younger siblings to learn or hear the things that they would say about our people." He described that as he grew older and went to school, he would always be bullied over the conspiracy theory that Jews would eat Muslim children’s blood as wine along with their matzah for Passover, a sacred Jewish holiday "Jews were always used as a scapegoat." My uncle Chosro explained, that was one of the most disturbing rumors he had to face about his people. He also validated that most of the time, the Islamic leaders, and or the Government would make some kind of mistake, and use false dilemmas to contradict the issue with something else. "They would even raise the prices for basic goods to distract the people! Anything from potatoes to rice was inflated in price, to distract hard-working families, trying to feed their families.

They would do anything to get reelected!" If the citizens were to find out about the Government or leaders mistakes, there was a chance that they wouldn't be reelected. When my uncle Chosro turned sixteen, he moved to America on his own to pursue an education, and to somehow eventually bring his family to America, away from the Jewish hatred. Chosro said that he does not remember experiencing many conspiracy theories in America, although he did experience many different kinds of prejudice behavior against Middle Easterners. "I was the double threat! I had it the worse! Not only was I Middle Eastern, I Jewish too!" "I was beaten up many times, made fun of, called many names like Dune, Goon, Sand Niga, Camel Jockey, a predominate slur Americans used to make fun of Iranians in the 80s." One thing that he said he learned about conspiracy theories growing up, is that people will do or say anything to get the blame off their hands, people used conspiracy theories to take the blame off of themselves when there were no solutions. He explained to me how Iran was a closed society, everything in the newscasts was controlled by the government, while America was more of an open place to express yourself, especially in the seventies.

When comparing the two articles, The Western Democracy’s article "Who Are The Globalist" and the Middle Eastern’s newscast Hurriyet Daily News,’ I noticed that not only do both countries have a widespread society who believes in conspiracy theories, but also specifically, that both these articles: are self-victimizing, have lack of falsification, that both were obviously accusing a group acting in secret, and that they have both been influenced by European conspiracy theories. The fact that both narrators of these articles act like victims, proves my uncle’s lesson that people use conspiracy theories to blame others for their own problems. "Of course, it is important to recognize that this conspiracy of the elite at war with the public is nothing new.

In fact, it is thousands of years old. The elite have always sought to advance themselves and enslave the people whom they rule. Sadly, today is no different in that respect If they are successful, there will be no turning back as they will eliminate those who do not serve them and the state and replace us with new improved genetically engineered servants." The Article "Who Are The Globalist" targets the elite. Chief presidential adviser Yi  it Bulut from Harriyet news claimed, foreign TV chefs were gathering intelligence as they traveled to different provinces around Turkey "An Englishman and an Italian were sampling the tastes of Anatolia and traveling to many provinces and villages, cooking food. Do you think they are doing that for their own benefit? Have you ever seen a Turk hosting a cooking program on French TV, visiting its provinces, villages and industrial facilities? Taking advantage of pure-minded Anatolian people" and their hospitality, collecting information about military bases and industrial facilities under the guise of cooking shows". He adds, "Our people are pure, they are opening their doors to friends. They tell all their secrets, they show everything: Where is the military unit, the radar, the ammunition, the weapons warehouse, how to enter and leave the village".

The term Conspiracism is used often, due to the fact that people believe in contradictory conspiracy theories. To be a conspiracy theory, it must take into account the 4 Hallmarks of conspiracy theories: A group of people, acting in secret, planning to alter institutions, to usurp their power, hide the truth and to gain utility, all in the expense of the common good. Both of these article’s theories fit in the 4 Hallmarks. The way conspiracists look at the world is also rational, due to the fact that they look at every detail, and take to account, just like both of these narrators who have researched their information, like "Who Are The Globalist" claims that their structure has been illustrated in a variety of different ways by different researchers. There is no room for gaps, everything is relevant. Unlike scientific theories where there is room for gaps, to prove evidence to find the right answer, to prove the scientist wrong, and give him space to allow himself more research.

On the other hand, everything in conspiracy theories is hyper-rational, like the information given in both articles. Conspiracy theories do identify real problems, they look at the tragic side of life like, why do bad things happen to good people. They look at war, plane crashes, natural disasters as examples of real problems. Conspiratorial worldviews believe that there is a truer reality out there that we can not see; Due to cause and effect, we cannot trust our 5 senses! Our 5 sense are limited, we cant see gravity or particles of atoms, we cant see behind us, it's not a full picture. "Our eyes cant see details." Therefore we can not fully trust our senses. Before science in the 17th century, there was an array of randomness to solutions of the world, but there was also an emergence of science until they reached the 18th century. Starting in the 18th century, people gained a Mechanistic worldview, they found a way to predict the future, and there is was a regularity, everything had an explanation and meaning behind it.

Both articles were influenced by European history and propaganda, conspiracy theories did migrate across time, before the 1960s conspiracy theories targeted minorities, and after the 1960s, they targeted the elite, and now it’s both groups. Before the 1960s, the main conspiracy theory was called The Foran Strategic Conspiracy to undermine American Democracy, it was a domestic fraction that worked with a forage power to undermine American democracy, Ex: Minority conspiracy against Muslims, foreign conspiracy theory when Obama worked with other countries with the united nations to undermine America. Across the political spectrum, during the 1960’s there was an accouter culture between the leftist and the rightest but today its on the same side. Conspiracy theories do migrate to regions, specifically: Europe to Middle East 19th- 20th century colonization, and Anti-semitic conspiracy theories.

During World War II, the Nazis conveyed a large number of printed pamphlets and communicated a great many hours of shortwave radio projects in Arabic to spread their belief system all through the Middle East and North Africa. Nazi shortwave Arabic communications started in October 1939 and proceeded until February or March 1945. Radio stations in Berlin played, Voice of Free Arabism communicate a blend of news, music, and critique seven days and evenings seven days. Be that as it may, as Herf yields, data about the size and nature of the listening group of onlookers and the communicates exact effect on Arab thinking stays rare. It was sufficiently critical to warrant a supported checking exercise by the United States Office of War Information and by April 1942 was delivering a large number of pages of verbatim English transcripts of the communicates?”a lot of which Herf has trawled perseveringly." Excerpt from David Welch's survey of Jeffrey Herf's Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World distributed by Yale University Press in 2009.

They connect due to the reason that the right and left have different beliefs when it comes to conspiracy theories. Everyone is the target of conspiracy theories. During the 18th century in the Period of The Age of The Enlightenment. The characteristics were the two worldviews that clashed. The religious view that looked at the way people behaved in society Ex: Adam and Eve; And the secular people that believed in equality and reason, science The New Scientific Paradigm, which is Mechanistic paradigm. One characteristic is that there is: no randomness, causes, and effect what we can and can't see, and applying cause and effect to human behavior, their intentions and actions are connected. A shift occurs in the 18th century and metaphysical conspiracy theories are replaced by secular counterparts. In the eighteenth century, actors and characters replace the fallen angel, evil presences and witches. Illuminati paranoid notions move from Europe to America. With them, we experience a specific kind of fear inspired notion. The Strategic Foreign Conspiracy to Undermine American Democracy, Focal Belief, A residential group, the Illuminati currently working together with an outside energy to undermine the American vote based system. This is an account of American majority rule government is praiseworthy, different states fear its fascination in their own particular populace.

After reading the articles I have observed, that the Middle Eastern conspiracies within the text stem from the government from being anti-western democracy, and the American conspiracy articles have pretended to be anti-elite, and anti-government, aka the new world order etc. After researching the counties mentioned within the articles, there is a coloration between the essence of the conspiracy theory and the oppression of its people. The bottom line being power threats within the powerful positions within the political system, religion, and business world. Oppression of the people is one of the reasons why . The way the leaders obtain their power in the middle east is by oppressing the citizen’s power, and that this will most likely never change in the Middle East. This is why the Middle Eastern government wants as little Western exploration as possible. If you think about it, that is why the smallest thing like an international chef visiting a foreign country will spark kayos, and paranoia. The witch hunts in Salem are a reminder of what the smallest amount of paranoia can cause. Thetrialand execution of 19 supposedwitchesinSalem, Massachusetts. The hunt forwitchesbegan when girls in the minister’s household believed themselves bewitched. Panic about devil worship and resultant accusations spread through surrounding towns until 50 people were afflicted and 200 had been accused. Increase Matherand Governor Sir William Phips managed to halt thewitchcraze in October 1692. Comparing an event that happened in 1693, to an event happening in the twenty-first century, is a shock both culturally, and humanely. Finally, this shows how primitive their system is.

Paranoid ideas have been around for a considerable length of time and will probably be around long after we are no more. While it isn't known regardless of whether any of these hypotheses are valid, there are numerous individuals who intensely trust them. A few people would state that these speculations are pardons individuals make since they would prefer not to acknowledge reality. There are many who might disagree with that announcement. Conspiracy scholars would say that the announcement in regards to not having any desire to "acknowledge the reality of the situation" is simply one more way the associations like the Illuminati conceal their reality. Despite the fact that we have no clue what is valid and what is false with regards to fear conspiracy theories, we do have the chance to look at and break down them so as to pick up a superior comprehension of them. That is precisely what this paper has done. Taking two articles concerning conspiracy theories from two opposite sides of the earth has shown us the tremendous impact America has on the rest of the world. We also learn just how much damage paranoia and distrust can create in the world. People can be killed and wrongly accused of things because of uncertainty and fear even in our day and age.

Works Cited:

  1. "The Globalist Agenda- Who Are They." The Globalist Agenda - Who Are They?, www.globalistagenda.org/who.htm.
  2. "Foreign Chefs on Turkish TV Cooking Shows Are Spies: Chief Presidential Adviser Yi it Bulut." Harriyet Daily News, Hurriyetdailynews.com, 8 Dec. 2016, www.hurriyetdailynews.com/foreign-chefs-on-turkish-tv-cooking-shows-are-spies-chief-presidential-adviser-yigit-bulut--107041.
  3. Professor Arabzadeh’s lecture notes.
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Types of Conspiracy Theories. (2020, Aug 20). Retrieved July 22, 2024 , from

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