Objectives best achieved with optimum use of all available resources – human, technological, financial & physical resource. Combined efforts of people facilitate utilization of monetary & other material resources Dire need to manage human resources with utmost care to maximize their contribution to achieve organizational objectives.
Human Resources Development is development of individuals undertaken in accordance with their needs & aspirations to motivate them for their best contribution accomplishment of common goals. Focus: Personnel management designed to respond to organizational objectives like profit maximization, HRM visualized human element of enterprise as important resource. Philosophy: HRM is a philosophy, an attitude, an approach, a policy & practice; while personnel management is viewed as functional area of management. HRM represents humanization of management, while personnel management is concerned with managing personnel. Nature of Function: Traditionally personnel management viewed as staff function headed by personnel mgr responsible for procurement, training, compensation & appraisal of personnel. HRM is responsibility of every line function. HRM includes manpower planning, procurement, training, compensation & appraisal, career planning & development, counseling, motivation & appraisal. Pervasiveness: HRM is concern of all managers from top to bottom in an organization, while personnel management is concern of personnel manager Motivation: HRM concentrates more on motivation, morale-boosting & job satisfaction, while personnel management is primarily concerned with selection, recruitment & appraisal of personnel. Team Work: HRM is more concerned with working with people, team building & teamwork; while personnel management is interested in orderly way of administration of personnel policies & programs. Objective of any organization- Profit maximization Reasonable rate of return to owner Reinvestment in business through satisfaction of customers Maintenance of a satisfied workforce, and Creation of good public image Techniques: Traditionally personnel manager operated through pressure tactics & coercive measures including threats of punishments HRM aims to achieve workers’ cooperation through team building, mutual understanding & motivation. HR dept /personnel deptt set up under HR manager or personnel manager. Other than managerial, operative & advisory functions, important roles of HR manager are: Counseling role: Personnel manager plays role of a counselor with employees. Discusses problems of employment relating to work, career, their supervisors, colleagues, health, family, financial, social etc Suggests them means to minimize & overcome those problems. Human Relation Role: Personnel manager is expected to Be an expert in human relations Improve productivity by fulfilling the economic, social & psychological needs and aspirations of employees. Personnel manager also has to meet the challenge of fast changing industrial society Mediator’s Role: Personnel Manager Often acts as mediator during friction between two employees, two groups of employees, superior & subordinates and employees & management, Liaison Role: acts as organization’s rep to give overall picture of organizational operations to employees particularly during industrial disputes or grievance redressal. acts as employees’ rep in representing their problems to management particularly where trade unions are not there. Legal Role: Plays fire fighting role of grievance handling, settlement of disputes, handling disciplinary cases, collective bargaining, joint consultation, interpretation & implementation of various labour laws, filling suits in labour courts, industrial tribunals, civil courts and the like. Practitioners in the field see thus in modern context Human Resource Management (HRM) as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce, and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. Professional knowledge & understanding Participation in Strategic planning process- HR managers must have expertise & capability to participate in strategic planning, understand its linkages to HR goals, translate organizational strategic plans into HR action plans & ensure effective implementation Business requirements & realities HR managers need to have understanding of business requirements & realities EG: if top management is trying to achieve annual targets & HR manager comes with innovative HR practice unconcerned with business targets, it is likely to be rejected Leadership & Teambuilding Skills HR managers be highly motivated & proficient in motivating & carrying their teams along Team commitment critical in goal setting & project execution Knowledge management capabilities HR manager’s efficacy lies in motivating people to share their knowledge & expertise with their peers HR managers be adept not only in soft skills but also in building & sustaining knowledge management systems Facilitator, coordinator and counselor HR managers have to facilitate inter-team & inter-project coordination for achieving desired goals & levels of performance Line Managers’ responsibilities- not only HR some other people also plays an important role in the development of the organization like line managers and these managers need to perform the certain duties like To prepare the time table in which working hour of each and every employee should be mentioned Line manager also need to keep the check that every single employee in the organization is taking care health and safety issues as demanded by the organization as this is one of the most important tasks to be done by the line manager Employee should be divided into the groups and should be asked to complete the desired tasks given to them according to the skills present among those employees To keep monitoring the working of the employee as this will make sure for the line manager that every task s completed by the Workers n proper manner and way. HR strategies, defining the direction in which HRM intends to go HR policies, which are guidelines defining how these values, principles & strategies should be applied & implemented in specific areas of HRM HR processes, consisting of informal procedures & methods used to put HR strategic plans & policies into effect HR practices, consisting of the informal approaches used in managing people HR programmers, which enable HR strategies, policies & practices to be implemented according to plan
Recruitment -complex activity than most managers think Doesn’t just involve placing ads or calling employment agencies Efforts must make sense in terms of company’s strategic plans EG: decisions to expand & fill large no. of anticipated openings imply careful thought when & how shall recruiting be done Some recruiting methods are superior to others, depending on type of job for which recruiting being done vis-vi availability of resources Success with recruiting depends to great extent on non recruitment HR issues & policies EG: deciding to pay 10% higher salary & better benefits than most nearby firms, other things being equal, helps to build a bigger applicant pool faster All organizations engage in recruitment. Some delegate job to HR managers, others involve HR managers In some orgs, recruitment is a continuous process EG: MNCs like fast food firms or service orgs with 100 thousand employees continually engage in recruiting Employment conditions in a community where organization is located- factor for attracting potential job applicants Certain geographic factors & location advantages play important role Effect of past recruiting efforts which show organization’s ability to locate & keep good people, is another criterion EG: if an org follows policy of recruiting from within, employees will be motivated to continue Compensation & benefits package offered by org influence & attract employees Growing & expanding organizations always find it necessary to recruit; orgs not growing may not need any recruitment
Is process of choosing appropriate candidate from obtained applications to match requirements of job? Is a process of matching between skills of individual & requirements of job : Care need be taken, as these decisions affect not only career of individual but also future of orgs No shortcut to accurate evaluation of candidate. Hiring procedures generally long & complicated. SELECTION Step-1: Preliminary Screening Interview Usually conducted by special interviewer Aim – screen out unqualified candidates at outset When large no. of applicants are available, preliminary interview desirable both from company’s point of view & that of applicants Essentially sorting process, prospective applicants given necessary information about jobs in organization. Necessary information also elicited from candidates – education, experience, skill, salary demanded, reasons for leaving their present job, physical appearance, age, drive etc Other information: Hobbies, interest participation in sports, NCC,NSS etc Reference Checks: Names of two or more people who can certify suitability of candidate To ensure truthfulness, application carries threat of discharge at any after employment if information provided is false At senior level, short -listed candidates have Three levels of interviews With placement consultants Technical/project/regional heads HR functionaries The selection process followed by Iceland- The Selection process followed by Iceland The selection procedure at Iceland is very simple. The vacancies are advertised on their website The candidate can apply online by selecting the appropriate vacancy That suits them The information provided by the candidates then checked Against the criteria required for the vacancy that is set by Iceland’s HRM department The successful candidates will be contacted for the next Step of their recruitment process interview Depending upon the skills Required for the vacancy the candidates are directed either to the Potential line manager or to an assessment center This selection Procedure which is commonly known as Matching model and is quite famous In many organization these days This type of model is appropriate where A large number of candidates apply for small number of vacancies This Model helps an organization to choose the most appropriate candidates As near to the criteria set by the organization Aiding self-development of employees at all levels- is providing opportunities for personnel development, growth, requisite skills & experience. Investigating, developing and maintaining motivation for work. Collective bargaining, contract negotiations, contract administration & grievances.
After his selection & trg for a job, management likes to assess how the employee performs Imperative to evaluate employees’ performance & assess hiring & training methods followed in org. Employees recruited with some objectives, whether achieved or not; hence periodic evaluation. Merit rating – ‘Process of evaluating employee’s performance on a job in terms of its requirements’ also termed as Performance Appraisal or Employee Appraisal. Performance assessing methods of job evaluation used are:- Job Ranking is the simplest form. Basically one just orders the jobs according to perceived seniority. This is easy to do in a small organization, but gets more and more difficult as different jobs exist within the company. Pair Comparison introduces more rigors by comparing jobs in pairs, but really it’s a more structured way of building a basic rank order. Benchmarking or slotting sets up certain jobs that are analyzed in detail. These are then used for comparison to slot jobs against these benchmarks. Job Matching allocates benchmarks too, but when a position is matched the elements of the job that differ are re-evaluated. Usually this evaluation will be done with a Point Factor Analysis (PFA) or classification system, okay. People differ in their abilities & aptitudes even with same basic education & training Differences in quantity & quality of work – done by different employees even on same job. Imperative for management to know these differences so that employees having better abilities may be rewarded, & wrong placement of employees be rectified through transfers. Individual employees – like to know their level of performance in comparison to others for improving upon it. Hence the need to have suitable performance appraisal system to measure relative merits Characteristics of Performance appraisal Systematic process consisting of no steps followed for evaluating employee’s strengths & weaknesses Is an objective description of employee’s strengths & weaknesses in terms of the job. Appraisal is an ongoing &continuous process where evaluations are arranged periodically according to definite plan; not a one shot deal. Seeks to secure information necessary for making objective & correct decisions on employees. May be formal or informal. Formal system is fair & objective, carried out in a systematic manner using printed appraisal forms Benefit s of performance appraisal Helps supervisor evaluate performance of his employees systematically & periodically; Helps in placement of employees on job for which best suited. Enables supervisor to constructively guide employees in efficient performance of their jobs. Provides mgmt an objective basis for deciding salary increases & special increments of the staff. Used for transfer & promotions of employees Facilitates analysis of training & development needs & evaluating effectiveness of existing training programmes.
Methods of Performance AppraisalTraditional methods
PAY SATISFACTION Research indicates Individuals differ in the way they conceptualize pay satisfaction Pay satisfaction is result of input- income ratio Inputs refer to effort, skill, education, previous work experience, special interest etc Outcomes are what people get out of their jobs-pay, promotions, recognition etc Employee satisfaction with pay is directly proportional to commitment to organization & trust in management Inversely related to absenteeism & lateness, seeking alternate employment opportunities, terminating employment with organization & incidence of theft Enables an organization to attract & retain qualified, competent individuals Motivates employee performance, fosters a feeling of equity & provides direction to their efforts Supports, communicates & reinforces org’s culture, values & competitive strategy Pay is dominant organizational award orgs provide rewards to their personnel to motivate their performance & encourage loyalty & retention Organizational rewards- no of forms: wage & salary, bonuses, incentive pay, recognition & benefits Performance appraisal is broader term than merit rating, are used synonymously. Merit rating measures what person is (traits) & Performance appraisal measures what the person does (performance). In merit rating, focus is on judging caliber of employee to decide salary increment Whereas performance appraisal focuses on performance & future potential of employee. Is systematic process consisting of no. steps followed for evaluating employee’s strengths & weaknesses. Is an objective description of employee’s strengths & weaknesses in terms of the job. Appraisal is an ongoing &continuous process where evaluations are arranged periodically according to definite plan; not a one shot deal. Seeks to secure information necessary for making objective & correct decisions on employees. May be formal or informal. Formal system is fair & objective, carried out in a systematic manner using printed appraisal forms. Assessment Center First developed in U.S.A. & U.K. in 1943 Gaining popularity in our country- Compton Greaves, Eicher & HLL using technique with positive results Earlier used for executive hiring, but now for evaluating executive/supervisory potential Assessment center – central location where managers come together to participate in job related exercises evaluated by trained observers Principle idea -evaluate managers over a period of time by observing & evaluating their behavior across series of select exercises or work samples Managers asked to participate in in-basket exercises, work groups (without leaders), computer stimulations, role playing & other similar activities – require same attributes for successful performance as on actual job After recording their observations, raters meet to discuss these observations Decision regarding performance of each manager based upon discussion of observations Self-appraisal & peer evaluation also used in final rating Assessment center generally measures interpersonal skills, communication skills, ability to plan & organize, self confidence, resistance to stress, mental alertness etc Systematic process consisting of number of steps followed for evaluating employee’s strengths & weaknesses. Also a method to determine training & development needs of employees & provide data for HRP All candidates get equal opportunity to prove their merit. Rater’s personal bias is reduced. There are many reward system are in place in the organization depending upon the performance The example of this is very clear on their website where they say that more than 60% of Iceland store managers are actually promoted internally from the different position in the store Many other case studies are there that people joined them in early teenage is now working as regional managers The example of this is very clear on their website where they say that more than 60% of Iceland store managers are actually promoted internally from the different position in the store. Objectives best achieved with optimum use of all available resources – human, technological, financial & physical resource. Combined efforts of people facilitate utilization of monetary & other material resources Dire need to manage human resources with utmost care to maximize their contribution to achieve organizational objectives. Though all of the above play a role in determining wages, it is impossible to conclude that managers have all this relevant information available when making wage decisions. Therefore, they must rely on information that is readily available, relevant, and easily deciphered. From the above analysis of the external factors, only one meets all of these criteria and it is the influence of outside wages.
EXIT FROM THE ORGANISATION Exit from the organization is the procedure adopted by the organization to make reign of the employee without playing any rules and regulation to the government and there are number of ways by which organization can make exit for the employees Retirement- when the person becomes old and cant give the productivity according to the desires of the organization then organization follows this kind of procedure which is known as retirement by giving the extra facilities and it can be implemented over the age of 65 only Terminations- there are some responsibilities which employees need to follow and these responsibilities can be like not to steal the organization property and coming at exact time for Working hours, and if the employee fails to follow these rules then organization got the right to make him or her terminate. From employee side Every employment contract has a clause where an employee can end the his/her own employment by giving company a notice in advance ranging from one week to one month In Iceland the time varies according to the position that one is holding it is same for the Tesco if an employee is holding lower level position can leave on two weeks advance notice but for top management positions it is as high as three months Redundancy This type of exit procedure is always under fire and are quite random in nature actually there is no set criteria for the redundancy of the employees The main criteria of redundancy are based on the solvency position of the business financial position of the business But still there are many other criteria that a company can use to redundant its employees No company giving any information about its redundancy policy Therefore this criteria could be similar or different between Iceland food Ltd and Tesco The other common criteria for the redundancy is the closure of any plant or failure of particular product or any branch of the business or when business is switching it operations from one place to another Even there are many more criterion of redundant the employees but only a few are justifiable.
HR philosophies, describing the overarching values & guiding principles adopted in managing people. HR strategies, defining the direction in which HRM intends to go HR policies, which are guidelines defining how these values, principles & strategies should be applied & implemented in specific areas of HRM HR processes, consisting of informal procedures & methods used to put HR strategic plans & policies into effect HR practices, consisting of the informal approaches used in managing people HR programmers, which enable HR strategies, policies & practices to be implemented according to plan Setting general & specific mgmt policy for relationship and establishing & maintaining a suitable organization for leadership and cooperation. Staffing the organization, finding, getting & holding prescribed types & number of workers. Aiding self-development of employees at all levels- is providing opportunities for personnel development, growth, requisite skills & experience. Investigating, developing & maintaining motivation for work Collective bargaining, contract negotiations, contract administration & grievances.
managementhelp.org/hr_mgmnt/hr_mgmnt.htm www.icmrindia.org/…/Fundamentals%20of%20HYPERLINK “https://www.icmrindia.org/…/Fundamentals of Hrm/Fundamentals of Hrm.htm”HrmHYPERLINK “https://www.icmrindia.org/…/Fundamentals of Hrm/Fundamentals of Hrm.htm”/Fundamentals%20of%20HYPERLINK “https://www.icmrindia.org/…/Fundamentals of Hrm/Fundamentals of Hrm.htm”HrmHYPERLINK “https://www.icmrindia.org/…/Fundamentals of Hrm/Fundamentals of Hrm.htm”.htm www.saycocorporativo.com/saycoUK/BIJ/journal/…/article9.pdf www.HYPERLINK “https://www.hrmasia.com/”hrmHYPERLINK “https://www.hrmasia.com/”asia.com
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