Logic Essays

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Arguments behind ethical relativism

The discussions presented by James Rachel on the issue of cultural relativity and the ethical relativity is the premise that different cultures have different moral codes that guide given actions of individuals. In that sense, variations in the morality from one culture to another provides space to assert that right or wrong is a matter […]

Pages: 2 Words: 560 Topics: Epistemology, Logic, Morality, Reasoning, Stereotypes, Truth

Questions and Reflections in Meditation

Descartes writes let us reflect that possibly neither our hands nor our whole body are such as they appear to us to be in his first meditation. If we can sense our hands and body with all of our senses, however, are they still deceived? By this I mean that if we can use all […]

Pages: 8 Words: 2420 Topics: Epistemology, Existence, Justification, Logic, Metaphysics, Rene Descartes, Truth
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A Review Of A Reading Guide to Descartes Meditations

Emanuela Scribano’s guide to Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy is extremely insightful to understanding 17th century philosophy, and the adaptation of Aristotelian Scholastic philosophy to Descartes’ practical philosophy. Scribano’s vivid comprehension of Meditations is apparent through her rich analyses and ability to reference Descartes directly to aid her claims. Clearly and effectively writing in the […]

Pages: 5 Words: 1354 Topics: Justification, Knowledge, Logic, Reasoning, Rene Descartes, Truth

Descartes and exploration the reality of the exist

In the Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes speaks through the mind of the meditator and explores the reality of the existence of God and all things. At the end of the Second Meditation, Descartes concludes that because he is doubting his existence, he is therefore thinking, meaning that he exists. This conclusion pushes Descartes to […]

Pages: 6 Words: 1782 Topics: Epistemology, Existence, Justification, Logic, Metaphysics, Rene Descartes, Truth

Synchronic Dimension in Study of Languages

Introduction Synchronic dimension in study of languages is the most compelling concept discussed by this writer. The writer generally introduces the structuralist point of view into linguistics and this is initially marked by giving a special relief to the use of synchronic dimension while studying a language (Saussure, 1913). This dimension is considered to be […]

Pages: 2 Words: 550 Topics: Communication, Epistemology, Human Communication, Language, Logic, Semiotics, Word

Scientific Theories : Instrumentalism

The view that scientific theories do not describe reality and that they are mere tools for prediction describes instrumentalism. In a nutshell, the view describes scientific theories such as those of mathematical-logical conception among others. This essay will focus on instrumentalism, the mathematical-logical conception of scientific theories and how the view leads to instrumentalism of […]

Pages: 2 Words: 585 Topics: Concept, Epistemology, Justification, Logic, Metaphysics, Reasoning, Truth

Who was René Descartes?

René Descartes (1596-1650) was a French scholar and a man of his time. He lived in a period of progress, built up customary perspectives were offering an approach to new revelations in science and distinctive religious viewpoints in Europe People like Galileo, Copernicus, Newton, and Martin Luther were making the cutting edge world. Descartes was […]

Pages: 3 Words: 792 Topics: Epistemology, Justification, Logic, Rationalism, Reasoning, Rene Descartes

Student Of Plato’s

Aristotle, as a student of Plato’s’ , does not come to agree with his teacher. He was forced to give reasons as to why he disagreed with Plato, and what his views on each subject were. But, he was so attracted to the work of Plato, that he insisted on having the corrected version of […]

Pages: 8 Words: 2439 Topics: Aristotle, Epistemology, Justification, Logic, Metaphysics, Reasoning

Difference Between Aristotle’s And Plato’s

One major difference between Aristotle’s and Plato’s idea of the state is that the former believes that all states are natural, whereas the latter only believes that a state is natural if it is just. In the case of Aristotle, he sees political association as deriving from crucial human relationships, namely the association of the […]

Pages: 5 Words: 1375 Topics: Aristotle, Epistemology, Justice, Knowledge, Logic, Metaphysics, Plato

Divided Line and Allegory of the Cave

Plato, in The Republic, discusses human nature, the meaning of justice, and the ordering of the perfect city, through a series of dialogues among philosophers. Plato, through the lens of the character Socrates, argues that justice is achieved when everyone in the city is doing the job that is most suited to their unique talents […]

Pages: 4 Words: 1349 Topics: Allegory Of The Cave, Epistemology, Justification, Logic, Metaphysics, Truth

Applications of Discrete Mathematics

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying “smoothly”, the objects studied in discrete mathematics – such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic – do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, […]

Pages: 7 Words: 2030 Topics: Logic

Instrumentalism Underdetermination Realism

  Understanding Underdetermination in conjunction with realism and instrumentalism   The present essay is about the understanding of under determination thesis in conjunction with the realism and instrumentalism. As we know that realism and instrumentalism are two opposite views in philosophy of science, so by explaining the two it would be much easier to grasp […]

Pages: 11 Words: 3235 Topics: Epistemology, Logic, Phenomenology, Reality, Reasoning, Truth

Consider Descartes’ First Two Meditations, and answer the question: can you know that your experiences are veridical?

The question of whether or not one can know whether one is dreaming has become a staple of philosophical discussion since Descartes wrote The Meditations in the 1600s. Engaging in philosophy for the first time, this can seem a bizarre question. However, Descartes’ reasoning for doubting the certainty that one is not dreaming is compelling. […]

Pages: 8 Words: 2293 Topics: Epistemology, Logic, Phenomenology, Reasoning, Rene Descartes, Truth

Are there any Arguments Which Work to Prove the Existence of God?

In this essay it shall be discussed whether there are any arguments which work to prove the existence of God. The teleological and cosmological arguments shall be first discussed, criticised by showing their reliance on the ontological argument, which shall then be shown to be an inadequate argument. It will then be concluded that there […]

Pages: 7 Words: 2013 Topics: Existence, Existence of God, God, Logic, Ontological Argument, Reasoning, Truth

Mean Variance Optimisation in the market

Mean-variance theory was developed in the 50’s and 60’s by Markowitz, Tobin, Sharpe, and Lintner, among others. It is still called Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) by some people. Mean-variance theory continues to be the main workhorse on which analytical portfolio management is based. The equilibrium version of mean-variance theory is called the Capital Asset Pricing […]

Pages: 15 Words: 4485 Topics: Inductive Reasoning, Investment, Logic, Reasoning, Risk, Scientific Method

Interval Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Multi Set Theoretic Approach to Decision Making Problems

Interval Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Multi Set Theoretic Approach to Decision Making Problems Abstract—In recent years the application of soft set in decision making problems has been developed rapidly since it can be applied easily to several areas like computer science, information technology, medical science, economics, environments, engineering, among other areas. In this paper, we […]

Pages: 7 Words: 2185 Topics: Analysis, Logic

Context-sensitive consequentialist

Chapter 5 – Towards a situated consequentialism Introduction In this chapter, I outline a way of approaching rationality assessment which I call the context-sensitive consequentialist approach and provide an example of how it can be applied to empirical data obtained from experimental studies based on reasoning tasks. As is well-known, in the last decades, different […]

Pages: 46 Words: 13839 Topics: Evaluation, Hypothesis, Justification, Logic, Reasoning, Truth

About The Most Influential Thinker of Modernism

Can we achieve some absolutely unquestionable and obvious knowledge? The individual in solitude, in the almost desperate task of finding a firm ground on which to rest his convictions. This is the pretense of the philosophy of René Descartes. The result of this theme focuses on the phrase “I think, therefore I am”. With it […]

Pages: 2 Words: 706 Topics: Epistemology, Justification, Logic, Metaphysics, Reasoning, Rene Descartes, Scientific Method

Meditations on First Philosophy by René Descartes

Descartes’ findings through skepticismThrough the entirety of “Meditations on First Philosophy” by René Descartes, the concept of skepticism is brought upon its readers quite heavily. Within this text, Descartes addresses the notions of one’s self-ability to know. He utilizes multiple reasoning which can positively account for his overall ideology. The initial thought is that one […]

Pages: 4 Words: 1092 Topics: Existence, Knowledge, Logic, Metaphysics, Reasoning, Rene Descartes

Beliefs and The Existence of God

In Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes attempts to rebuild his beliefs from the ground up, accepting only those he can be absolutely certain of. In order to decide the certainty of a belief, Descartes creates proofs through a series of questions and statements. Each belief he attempts to prove is thoroughly explained in a […]

Pages: 2 Words: 666 Topics: Critical Thinking Skills, Epistemology, Existence of God, Justification, Logic, Metaphysics, Rene Descartes, Truth

About the negation of God

Evidence of the existence of God I want to give you some evidence of the existence of God. Can I share three proofs of the existence of God and then a story of a barber and a believer? I do not know the causes of your atheism? I do not know the causes of your […]

Pages: 4 Words: 1138 Topics: Atheism, Existence, Existence of God, God, Logic, Reasoning, Truth

Socrates and the Sophists

In ancient Greece, Socrates and the Sophists were the most valued philosophical thinkers of their time period. In this essay, I will be examining the similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking when it comes to their teachings as well as their overall beliefs of knowledge and thinking. The Sophists approach their thinking […]

Pages: 4 Words: 1147 Topics: Belief, Epistemology, Knowledge, Logic, Metaphysics, Socrates, Truth