Global Warming Causes and Effects

The main aim and goal of this study research is to highlight and focus the problem of Global Warming. It is the problem of our modern age; the 21st century. Global Warming has become a serious issue that needs study and research. This current project will have a brief look at the problem and its radical and substantial causes. This eventual issue has aroused a lot of argument among scientists and environmentalists to try to find solutions to reduce the side and negative effects of the problem. With restrictions like minimizing the greenhouse gases and finding alternative sources of energy will be the suitable solution to solve the problem and thus, life will continue on earth. Throughout this report, there will be an attempt to emphasize the problem, its causes, its effects and suggested solutions to abate the catastrophic matter.

Introduction

The Earth has been the home for living creatures for a very long time. It may be the only planet with life. The planet Erath is full of beauty. There are different aspects and features of beauty on Earth such as rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, oceans, jungles, animals and birds and so many forms of life. But the human activities and actions have led to a very serious problem. It is global warming. Throughout the last two centuries, particularly, within the new beginning of industrial revolution, our world has suffered from global warming or what most scientists and researchers call climate change. This dangerous problem has apparently become the current study for those who are interested in the environment and saving the world from vanishing and destroying life. Hence appeared the issue of struggling against global warming. It is a real fact. It is serious. It’s up to all of us to solve it. It’s the battle for life. This study will try to focus on the concept of global warming, definition, background history, causes, a case study, effects, conclusion and suggested solutions to solve to the problem or at least adapt to the new conditions for the longest time.

Concept of Global Warming

There are so many problems which the world is facing at recent times. One of these serious problems is global warming. The problem is aggravating and developing sharply, particularly, with the massive development in industry in most countries especially the developing ones. Here is an attempt to define global warming scientifically.

Definition of Global Warming

According to (Daniel A. Lashof 1990), global warming is defined as is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming. In other words, it is the high increase in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere as a result of exhausts and gases that emit from factories and also the smoke and fumes of air pollutants which lead to climate changes causing some troubles and disturbances in the world. It is figured like what happens in greenhouses. The sun rays enters the greenhouse, but the plastic walls don’t allow these rays to exit again an so rises the temperature of the greenhouse. The same thing occurs. The sun, which is the main source of heat on earth, sends its perpendicular rays to the earth surface. These rays penetrates the atmospheric layers and reach the earth in the image of short -wave visible rays and long- wave invisible rays. These are called infrared and ultraviolet rays. Some of these waves are absorbed by the earth’s atmosphere, while others are absorbed by the earth’s surface causing an increase in the temperature. Then, these long-wave rays are reflected again into the atmosphere, but it doesn’t let it out into space because of the greenhouse, causing increases in the temperature of seas and oceans over the natural level.

Background History to Global Warming

Paul N. Edwards claimed that the climate of the earth hasn’t remarkably changed since the existence of man on the Erath two million years before ( Paul N Edwards2011). But in the 15th century, the climate of the earth has begun to change especially with the new era of inventions and then the industrial revolution in the 17th century. Since then, problem began to accumulate on this planet to the degree of threatening life on earth and the necessary solutions to avoid these troubles haven’t been taken into consideration. These problems associated greatly with the political, industrial and technological development. The earth has no longer endured pollution and global warming. Perhaps, there will be a time when the earth will not be suitable to live and there will not be a chance to survive.

Causes of Global Warming

Greenhouse Gases

The temperature of the earth is rising at approximately twice the rate it was 50 years ago. This fast rate and pattern of warming, scientists have concluded, cannot be explained by natural cycles alone. The only way to explain the pattern is to include the effect of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by humans ( Julie Casper 2010). To come to a conclusion on climate change, the United Nations formed a group of scientists called the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC. The IPCC meets every few years to review the latest scientific findings and write a report summarizing all that is known about global warming. Each report represents a consensus, or agreement, among hundreds of leading scientists. Different greenhouse gases have very different heat-trapping abilities. Some of them can even trap more heat than CO2. A molecule of methane produces more than 20 times the warming of a molecule of CO2. Nitrous oxide is 300 times more powerful than CO2.

Deforestation

Plants play an important role in regulating the climate because they absorb carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen back into it( Richard Spilsbury2011). Forests and bush land act as carbon sinks and are a valuable means of keeping global warming to 1.5°C. But humans clear vast areas of vegetation around the world for farming, urban and infrastructure development or to sell tree products such as timber and palm oil. When vegetation is removed or burnt, the stored carbon is released back into the atmosphere as CO2, contributing to global warming. Up to one-fifth of global greenhouse gas pollution comes from deforestation and forest degradation.

Effects of Global Warming

Global warming has caused serious changes. These changes may be permanent on our planet’s geological, ecological and biological conditions. IPCC has concluded that all the changes that happened in the earth’s atmosphere is related to the human activities and again affects the humans causing serious consequences. These consequences will need unite the efforts to try to overcome this problem and avoid its negative and dangerous chattels. Here are some of the effects of global warming.

Temperature Extreme

The obvious increase of temperature is a vivid effect of global warming. Most counties nowadays suffer from extreme increase of temperature. The countries of Europe are temporarily suffering from extreme hot summers that weren’t accustomed to. The average global temperature has increased by about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius) over the past 100 years, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Extreme Weather Events

Extreme weather events is another effect of global warming. Some areas in the world are exposed to radical changes in weather. For example, some areas that were used to be rainy, are suffering from extreme droughts. While some other areas had cool and mild summers are having very hard heat waves causing dangerous sunburns and deaths. Global warming may also lead to extreme weather other than cold or heat extremes. For example, hurricane formations will change. Though this is still a subject of active scientific research, current computer models of the atmosphere indicate that hurricanes are more likely to become less frequent on a global basis, though the hurricanes that do form may be more intense. This year for instance experienced more than five hurricanes in the US, Oman, Australia, and the south east of Asia.

Ice Melt

That is the case study of this research. One of the most dramatic effects of global warming is the reduction in Arctic sea ice. Sea ice hit record-low extents in both the fall and winter of 2015 and 2016, meaning that at the time when the ice is supposed to be at its peak, it was lagging. The melt means there is less thick sea ice that persists for multiple years. That means less heat is reflected back into the atmosphere by the shiny surface of the ice and more is absorbed by the comparatively darker ocean, creating a feedback loop that causes even more melt, according to NASA’s Operation Ice Bridge.

Droughts and Floods

As a result of ice melt, of course, there will consequently be an increase in sea and ocean levels. n 2014, the World Meteorological Organization ( WMO),reported that sea-level rise accelerated 0.12 inches (3 millimeters) per year on average worldwide. This is around double the average annual rise of 0.07 in. (1.6 mm) in the 20th century.

Case Study

An analytical study has warned against the high increase in the ice melt will lead to an increase in the sea levels more than expected. According to the latest studies and evaluations through simulations, the ice melt in the Antarctica alone will lead to an increase in the sea levels by one meter at least by the end of the 21 century. And by the year 2500, there will be an increase of 13 meters in sea levels causing some areas of the world to vanish and disappear. In addition, the ice melt will affect the balance of salt water on the earth causing serious problem to the weather and the planet.

Suggested Solutions

Through all the causes and effects mentioned in the study research, there become a need to find solutions to stop this catastrophic problem. Scientists and environmentalists have suggested the following solutions.

Reduce Emissions

In order to effectively address global warming, we must significantly reduce the amount of heat-trapping emissions we are producing into the atmosphere. On the behalf of all individuals, organizations, governments and politicians, there must be strict laws and legislations to reduce the carbon emissions into the atmosphere be changing fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy such as solar power and wind energy.

Green Economy

The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment. It is closely related with ecological economics, but has a more politically applied focus.

State Policies

There is a need to set of smart, practical policies to jump-start this transition without delay and maximize the benefits to our environment and economy.

References

1. Climatic Change, Vol. 80, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 213-238. doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9107-5

2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming

3. https://www.britannica.com/science/global-warming

4. Bhandari MP. Climate change science: a historical outline. Adv Agr Environ Sci (2018)

5. NATURE | Vol 439 12 January 2006

6. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/global-warming.php

7. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE | VOL 4 | JANUARY 2014

8. Conservation Biology Volume 20, No. 2, April 2006

9. Malcolm et at. Global [farming and Extinction] 2012

10. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 2012, 2, 401-415

11. https://www.wwf.org.au/what-we-do/climate/causes-of-global-warming#gs.ZCRyh8Y

12. M. J. RING ET AL

13. IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014

14. Spilsbury, Richard,1963- Deforestation/ Richard Spilsbury( Development or Destruction     

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