Ahmed (2016) explored individual and joint effect of human resource management (HRM) practices on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) among Sudanese banking employees. This study’s findings confirm the validity of the relationships between variables. The relationship between various HRM practices and OCB was investigated using correlation analysis while multiple regression analysis was used to find out the joint effect of various HRM practices against OCB. From the findings it is concluded that recruitment and selection (RSP) is significantly correlated to the OCB, training and development program (TDP) and OCB are of moderate positive relationship, compensation (CSR) have small but definite positive relationship with OCB. The results show CRS to be of least correlation and low significant value with OCB. Furthermore, there is positive significant correlation among performance appraisal system (PAS) and OCB, which supports the past studies. Result of multiple linear regression is adequate and significant. Overall, PAS is the most crucial HR practices for OCB, followed by RSP. In contrast, TDP and CRS are found to be not significant in predicting OCB in banking industry, PAS being the most crucial HR practices for OCB, had been supported by several studies. Lastly, multiple regression analysis result shows CRS and OCB is of insignificant relationship as CRS contribute only slight or almost no effect against OCB that also supports the past studies.
Keplinger, Kowal and Mäkiö (2016) examined the effect of gender and country (cultural and organisational differences) on the organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) of information technology (IT) users in Poland (transition economy) and Germany (developed economy). The writer investigated two dimensions of human capital: the OCB individually oriented (OCBI) and organisationally oriented (OCBO). The online random survey comprised 280 Polish respondents and 72 German respondents, in different regions of the two countries. Findings show that effects of gender and country between Poland and Germany exist. In Germany, employees more appreciate OCB than in Poland. However, in both countries female subordinates had better evaluated supervisors’ OCB than male subordinates would. Female supervisors evaluate worse subordinates’ OCB than male supervisors.
A study by Nguyen et al (2016) provides a closer look at the HR-OCB relationship in Taiwan. To examine the relationships between HR practices; recruitment and placement (RP), teaching, education and career (TEC) development, support communication and retention (SCR) and performance and appraisal (PA) and organisational commitment and citizenship behaviour at primary schools in Taiwan was the main propose of this research. With the assistance from the school HR managers and using anti-common variance strategy, research data from 568 incumbent teachers in Taiwan were collected and analysed. Based on the findings, HR practices may not necessarily contribute to citizenship behaviour. Teachers with positive perceptions of retention and placement and teaching, education and career were more likely to demonstrate citizenship behaviour, whereas teachers with positive perceptions of support, communication and retention and performance and appraisal were not. In addition to that, the study also found the three moderators; affective organisational commitment (AOC), rank of positions and campus size.
Harsasi, Muzammil and Radeswandri (2017) analysed the effects of HRM practices on OCB that is mediated by organisational commitment conducted at a higher distance education institution in Indonesia. The data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha, and path analysis. From the result of the path analysis, it was found a positive effect of the implementation of HRM on OCB, with organisational commitment as the mediating variable.
Jain and Jain (2017) examined the relationship between organisational investments in employee development and the resultant employee behaviour. A conceptual framework of inter-linkage between HRD climate, HRD systems and OCB was developed. The validity of the scales developed for the purpose of study was tested through the confirmatory factor analysis and the scales were found valid. The model was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) on a sample of 306 bank managers in India. It is validated that HRD climate, performance appraisal, employee empowerment and employee training have broad-based influence on citizenship behaviour of the employees.
Misra (2018) studied the role of high-performance work systems as a set of workplace practices that enhance employee productivity and organisational performance. Using foundational research from the high-performance paradigm, the paper examines the effects of team-level strategic HR practices on job satisfaction. The paper also explores the benefits of participation in high performance work teams for employees working as part of these teams, owing to the closely-knit work outcomes and social networks that may develop among members. The study discovered that while high performance work practices may benefit employers, as they would increase organisational performance, they may do so at the cost of employee satisfaction as they could possibly push employees to work harder to raise productivity.
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