A Study on Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction of Soldiers in Camp Evangelista, Cagayan de Oro City Xavier University –Ateneo de Cagayan Hidlao, Gina Luz P. Tagarda, Aiza Elisea C. Turno, April Grace G. Mr. Rogelio A. Lee, Jr. M. A. Research Adviser Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION In any industrial organizations, there is a highlight on the importance of the well-being of its workforce aside from having a concrete structure for its over-all work efficiency. The military is not an exception. It can even be considered as one of the most important and precarious organization in a country such that being a soldier is much more than a work. Considered as a noble profession, it is no joke for anyone to risk lives and limbs in defense of the country’s freedom and sovereignty while being away from families. Senator and chairman of the Senate Committee, Ramon Magsaysay Jr. talked about Filipino soldiers as one of the lowest-paid employees of the government (The Philippine Star, 2002). He also noted that soldiers last received an increase in their base pay in November 1987 or 15 years ago at the time. Another article on 2007 of the Philippine Daily Inquirer talks about the Armed Forces of the Philippines’ (AFP) problem on the lack of the military personnel’s morale and the root cause of its inefficiency which are low salaries, insufficient benefits and antique weaponry. These various news on compensation, inefficiency, and morale issues sprouting in the media about soldiers, has made and has to be the country’s center of attention also. It is then for these informations why the researchers are interested on their job satisfaction and how do they evaluate themselves as a person – self-esteem. May it be for the soldiers’ productivity or for their well-being, it is important to acknowledge that their job satisfaction be checked once in a while. As cited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions in 2007, Spector concludes that “organizations have significant effects on the people who work for them and some of those effects are reflected in how people feel about their work. This makes job satisfaction an issue of substantial importance for both the organization and its workforce. Meanwhile, among the job satisfaction’s possible influences are working hours, work orientation, financial variables, employment contract, tenure, market, job mobility, marital status, age, quality of workers, direct supervisor relationships, and job security (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007; Harmer & Findley, 2006; Knerr, 2005; Nestor & Leary, 2000; Sukumar, 2006; Swortzel & Taylor, 2005). This study is important because seldom is there scientific inquiries in the Philippines, especially in Cagayan de Oro City, on the soldiers’ job satisfaction and their self-esteem. Furthermore, this area of study is important because it would give more insights on the importance and possible effects of self-esteem in elevating these soldiers’ skills, attitudes towards their work, morale, and commitment in what they do for the nation. And at the same time in a way to prevent undesirable events such as the recent hostage crisis involving a retired policeman in appealing on his retirement benefits. With these facts, this paper aims to know the level of self-esteem of the respondents. It also intends to measure the level of job satisfaction; through factors like compensation and benefits, work function, interpersonal relationships, and the physical work environment. Statement of the Problem 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 2. 1 Age 2. 2 Civil Status 2. 3 Length of Service 2. 4 Job Position 2. What is the level of self-esteem of the respondents in terms of: 3. 5 High 3. 6 Average 3. 7 Low 3. What is the level of job satisfaction of the respondents in terms of: 4. 8 Work Function 4. 9 Interpersonal Relationships 4. 10 Compensation and Benefits 4. 11 Physical Work Environment 4. Is there a significant difference in the level of self-esteem of the respondents when grouped according to: 5. 12 Age 5. 13 Civil Status 5. 14 Length of Service 5. 15 Job Position 5. Is there a significant difference in the level of job satisfaction of the respondents when grouped according to: 6. 16 Age 6. 17 Civil Status 6. 18 Length of Service . 19 Job Position Hypotheses Problems one, two and three are hypothesis-free. It is in problems four and five that these hypotheses are stated, and be tested at an alpha 0. 5 level of significance. Ho4: There is no significant difference in the level of self-esteem of the respondents when grouped according to: Age, Civil Status, Length of Service and Job Position. H24: There is a significant difference in the level of self-esteem of the respondents when grouped according to: Age, Civil Status, Length of Service and Job Position. Ho5: There is no significant difference in the level of job satisfaction of the respondents when grouped according to: Age, Civil Status, Length of Service and Job Position. H25: There is a significant difference in the level of self-esteem of the respondents when grouped according to: Age, Civil Status, Length of Service and Job Position. Review of Related Literature This section of the paper discusses studies and concepts that are relevant to this research. Self-esteem Yakubovich et. al. (1989) The study tests the hypothesis that structural changes in nurses’ work settings, which allow nurses to utonomously exercise their knowledge and skill lead not only to an enhanced feeling of professional autonomy, but also to an improvement in their professional self-image and to an increase in job satisfaction. The findings indicate that during the strike, PC head nurses expanded their activities and responsibilities and consequently felt more professional autonomy and job satisfaction, as well as improvement in professional self-image. Hospital head nurses experienced significantly less changes in their work situation and, as expected, less change in all work related attitudes. It is suggested that, when given the opportunity to define for themselves roles where they can use their experience, knowledge and skills, senior nurses stand-up to the challenge and consequently are more satisfied and their professional self-image improves. Judge and Bono (2001) presented meta-analytic results of the relationship of 4 traits – self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability (low neuroticism) – with job satisfaction and job performance. With respect to job satisfaction, the estimated true score correlations were . 6 for self-esteem, . 45 for generalized self-efficacy, . 32 for internal locus of control, and . 24 for emotional stability. The results based on 274 correlations suggest that these traits are among the best dispositional predictors of job satisfaction and job performance. Job Satisfaction Tom Smith (2007) Eighty-six percent of people questioned between 1972 and 2006 said they were content in their work and only four percent were not satisfied. The study showed workers over 65 years old were the most satisfied while people under 29 were the least happy in their work. He added that as people get older they move up the career ladder and get into better positions. They also sort through different alternative careers and find something that matches their talent and abilities better. Many of the least satisfied younger people are in starter jobs, according to Smith. But Smith pointed out that many of these people eventually move out of these unhappy jobs and that’s when job satisfaction levels increase with age. But money and prestige do not guarantee satisfaction. The rule is that most people are pretty satisfied… The level of job satisfaction has remained virtually unchanged in the last four decades. As cited in Job satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees (Tsigilis, Zachopoulou, & Grammatikopoulos, 2006), Togia, Koustelios, and Tsigilis investigated job satisfaction in Greece and used the Employee Satisfaction Inventory (ESI). The instrument assessed six dimension of job satisfaction: working conditions, pay, promotion, job itself, supervision, and organization as a whole. Results showed Greek librarians were most satisfied with job itself, supervision, and working conditions and less satisfied with pay and promotion, prior to working conditions, supervision, and organization as a whole. Age Shah Jalal Sarker, Alf Crossman, and Parkpoom Chinmeteepituck (2003) said that earlier studies suggest age is positively associated with job satisfaction, while others use length of service, or tenure, as a predictor of job satisfaction levels. This article examines whether age and tenure are individual determinants of satisfaction, or whether there is an interaction between the two. The results indicate that employee’s age is not significantly associated with overall job satisfaction level, but that tenure is. There is also significant relationship between tenure and facets of satisfaction (job, pay, and fringe benefits), but the effect of tenure on satisfaction is significantly modified by age. Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robbin (2010) found results in their study, “Self-Esteem Development from Young Adulthood to Old Age: A Cohort-Sequential Longitudinal Study”, that self-esteem declines sharply among older adults while middle-aged are most confident. Higher income and better health help maintain self-esteem, according to psychologists. Self-esteem rises steadily as people age but starts declining around the time of retirement, according to a longitudinal study of men and women ranging in age from 25 to 104. “Self-esteem is related to better health, less criminal behavior, lower levels of depression and, overall, greater success in life,” said the study’s lead author, Ulrich Orth, PhD. “Therefore, it’s important to learn more about how the average person’s self-esteem changes over time. Self-esteem was lowest among young adults but increased throughout adulthood, peaking at age 60, before it started to decline. These results are reported in the latest issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, published by the American Psychological Association. On average, women had lower self-esteem than did men throughout most of adulthood, but self-esteem levels converged as men and women reached their 80s and 90s. Blacks and whites had similar self-esteem levels throughout young adulthood and middle age. In old age, average self-esteem among blacks dropped much more sharply than self-esteem among whites. This was the result even after controlling for differences in income and health. Education, income, health and employment status all had some effect on the self-esteem trajectories, especially as people aged. “Specifically, we found that people who have higher incomes and better health in later life tend to maintain their self-esteem as they age,” said Orth. “We cannot know for certain that more wealth and better health directly lead to higher self-esteem, but it does appear to be linked in some way. For example, it is possible that wealth and health are related to feeling more independent and better able to contribute to one’s family and society, which in turn bolsters self-esteem. ” People of all ages in satisfying and supportive relationships tend to have higher self-esteem, according to the findings. However, despite maintaining higher self-esteem throughout their lives, people in happy relationships experienced the same drop in self-esteem during old age as people in unhappy relationships. Although they enter old age with higher self-esteem and continue to have higher self-esteem as they age, they decline in self-esteem to the same extent as people in unhappy relationships,” said co-author Kali H. Trzesniewski, PhD, of the University of Western Ontario. “Thus, being in a happy relationship does not protect a person against the decline in self-esteem that typically occurs in old age. ” There are numerous theories as to why self-esteem peaks in middle age and then drops after retirement, said the researchers. “Midlife is a time of highly stable work, family and romantic relationships. People increasingly occupy positions of power and status, which might promote feelings of self-esteem,” said co-author Richard Robins, PhD, of the University of California, Davis. “In contrast, older adults may be experiencing a change in roles such as an empty nest, retirement and obsolete work skills in addition to declining health. ” Orth does not think baby boomers will skew self-esteem trajectories as the majority of that generation reach retirement age. But with medical advances, they will be healthier longer and, therefore, may be able to work and earn money longer. It is possible that the decline in self-esteem might occur later in life for baby boomers,” he said. Civil Status Knerr (2005) found results that indicate a robust correlation between marital status and job satisfaction when controlling for both age and sex. He indicated a conditional relationship between marital status and job satisfaction insofar as the independent variable (marital status) and dependent variable (Job Satisfaction) associate only within certain parameters of the control variables (Age & Sex). For instance, the correlation between marital status and job satisfaction appears statistically significant for males under age 30, females aged 30 to 49, males over age 50, and females over age 50. Conversely, this association is statistically insignificant for females under age 30 and males aged 30 to 49. While interpreting these results proves facile, explaining them remains considerably more difficult. Perhaps no direct link exists between marital status and job satisfaction for females under age 30 because most of them remain single up to this point in their lives. In other words, their apparent job-satisfaction may not reflect marital status, since many women currently choose to postpone marriage until their thirties or forties. For males aged 30 to 49, the weak correlation between marital status and job satisfaction seems nebulous insofar as middle-aged men tend to value marriage as a prerequisite for life satisfaction. Perhaps this incongruity stems from the proverbial mid-life crisis experienced by many men. Furthermore, the study concluded that married people generally possess higher job-satisfaction than their single counterparts. Another study in India revealed that there is no significant relationship between age and level of satisfaction, there is significant relationship between Gender and level of satisfaction, there is significant relationship between monthly income and level of satisfaction, that there is no significant relationship between Experience and level of satisfaction, there is no significant relationship between marital status and level of satisfaction, that there is significant relationship between Nature of job and level of satisfaction, and that there is significant relationship between Educational Qualification and level of satisfaction (Sukumar, 2006). In a study of Scott and Swortzel on 2005, results showed that there is no significant relationships were found between age and the job satisfaction constructs. Satisfaction with job security (rb = – . 2) and satisfaction with pay (rb = . 10) were the only two job satisfaction constructs having low relationships with age. All other relationships were negligible. No significant relationships were found between marital status and the job satisfaction constructs. Only two low relationships were found. These relationships were found between marital status and internal work motivation (rpb = . 10) and between marital status and satisfaction with pay (rpb = . 11). All other relationships were negligible. Low relationships were observed between gender and the job satisfaction constructs of growth satisfaction, satisfaction with job security, and satisfaction with pay. Females rated all three of these constructs higher than males, indicating a higher level of satisfaction with personal learning and growth opportunities at work, job security, and compensation. However, even though the literature indicates a relationship between gender and job satisfaction. Age was not related to any of the job satisfaction constructs for Extension agents. For Extension agents, race had low relationships with the job satisfaction constructs of general satisfaction and satisfaction with supervision. Caucasians rated both of these constructs lower than other races, indicating a lower level of satisfaction with their jobs in general and with the supervision that they receive. Marital status was not related to any of the job satisfaction constructs for Extension agents. Education was not related to any of the job satisfaction constructs for Extension agents. Comparing the means of the job satisfaction constructs for the three groups of Extension agents revealed that for the most part, there was no difference among the three groups regarding how satisfied each group was with the seven job satisfaction constructs. Two groups differed only on one of the seven job satisfaction constructs. A significant difference was found between area agents and 4-H agents regarding how satisfied each group was with their co-worker relations. Area agents rated this construct lower than 4-H agents, indicating a lower level of satisfaction with their relationships with their coworkers. However, having held a previous position with the Extension Service was not related to any of the job satisfaction constructs for Extension agents. Length of Service There are findings in a 2000 study on The Relationship Between Tenure and the Non-Tenure Track Status of Extension Faculty and Job satisfaction, that concludes there was no was no statistically significant relationship between tenure status and extrinsic and overall job satisfaction. However, in this study a statistically significant relationship was found between non-tenure track status and intrinsic job satisfaction. This finding does not substantiate the assertion that tenure status improves job satisfaction. This study indicates that non-tenure track status faculty has higher job satisfaction among Extension faculty in West Virginia. In this study, no statistically significant relationship existed between these variables. Further analyses of the data revealed that a relationship exists between the respondents’ years of experience at WVU and their increased intrinsic and overall job satisfaction. Extension faculty has increased job satisfaction the longer they are employed at an institution. The Extension faculty in this study indicated higher intrinsic job satisfaction in ages of 23-33 and 46-50 when compared to ages of 34-46 and more than 51 years. These findings indicated that the older an employee, the higher his or her job satisfaction. The results of this study provided information related to the significant relationship between non-tenure track status and intrinsic job satisfaction. One implication is that the more support provided in the work place, the more highly satisfied the faculty member is likely to be. These data supporting the relationship between non-tenure track status and job satisfaction could be most important when new faculty are recruited. Additionally, Extension organizations and institutions that recognize the relationship between age and job satisfaction could provide mentoring programs for the 34-45 and more than 51 age groups. This mentoring could reinforce the support structure for the 23-33 and 46-50 age groups, support the 34-45 and more than 51 age groups, and this added mentoring could increase their job satisfaction, while the other age groups would gain recognition for the new relationship and support for them. Interpersonal Relationship Harmer and Findley (2004) found results that suggest that the quality of co-worker and direct supervisor relationships significantly positively impact on overall job satisfaction. Indeed, more than half of the variability in overall job satisfaction in the present study was accounted for by the quality of one’s co-worker and direct supervisor relationships. This finding supports previous research by Morrison (2004) looking at the role of non-romantic relationships in the facilitation of job satisfaction of hospital nurses in New Zealand. Morrison found that greater employee cohesiveness and the prevalence of workplace friendships resulted in reduced turnover intentions. Job dissatisfaction has been found to have a significant direct and mediating effect on employee turnover (Fields, Dingman, Roman ; Blum, 2005; Morrison, 2004). The current finding indicates the need for those involved in workforce planning to consider the promotion and support of the social aspects of workplace relationships, as a way of further improving employees’ experiences of their work. Previous research regarding the role of job satisfaction on employee well-being has found that job satisfaction does affect individual mental and physical well-being. The present study failed to support the second hypothesis; that satisfaction with one’s co-worker and direct supervisor relationships would significantly predict one’s level of holistic well-being. Physical Work Environment In Measuring Job satisfaction in Surveys – Comparative Analytical Report on 2007, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions; job satisfaction is considered a strong predictor of overall individual well-being (Diaz-Serrano and Cabral Vieira, 2005), as well as a good predictor of intentions or decisions of employees to leave a job (Gazioglu and Tansel, 2002). Beyond the research literature and studies, job satisfaction is also important in everyday life. Organizations have significant effects on the people who work for them and some of those effects are reflected in how people feel about their work (Spector, 1997). This makes job satisfaction an issue of substantial importance for both employers and employees. As many studies suggest, employers benefit from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity if their employees experience a high level of job satisfaction. However, employees should also ‘be happy in their work, given the amount of time they have to devote to it throughout their working lives’ (Nguyen, Taylor and Bradley, 2003a). Workers’ decisions about whether to work or not, what kind of job to accept or stay in, and how hard to work are all likely to depend in part upon the worker’s subjective evaluation of their work, in other words on their job satisfaction. Rose (2003) analyzed a number of possible influences on job satisfaction including individual well-being, working hours, work orientation, financial variables, and the employment contract, and market and job mobility. His findings fail to provide strong support for explanations of job satisfaction primarily in terms of socio-technical rewards of the job, although low influence in the workplace did emerge as a significant factor. All but one of the indirect measures developed to represent qualitative features of the workplace remained statistically insignificant, the measure of workplace influence being the exception. Much more important were factors related to the contractual features of the job. Having the ‘right package’ – contractually assured promotion opportunities, annual pay increments, bonuses and, above all, a job that was regarded as permanent – significantly boosted the job satisfaction score, with a marginal increment for not having to work unpaid overtime. There was also little support for the view that job satisfaction rises in a closely linear association with earnings; rather, jobs enabling financial expectations – at whatever level these were set – to be met, were more important. Having a recognized career path was also a highly significant factor relating to job satisfaction. High levels of work stress and a desire to work fewer hours – an aspiration held by a third of the sample of respondents – together accounted for well over a half of a standard deviation in job satisfaction scores. The key point that Rose makes (echoed in his more recent publication, (Rose 2005)) is that his conclusions are not intended to demonstrate that intrinsic rewards do not matter in analyzing job satisfaction. However, they may matter significantly less than is sometimes assumed once a greater range of influences is introduced. What is needed is an expansion of the range of causality. Differences in job satisfaction between groups and individuals are extremely complex and require more research, especially in relation to the measures used to gauge job satisfaction. The above mentioned studies seem to sustain the basic need for fulfilling one’s job and generating self-esteem. In a capitalistic environment, learning the relationship that exists between job satisfaction and self-esteem is for the ultimate purpose of improving worker productivity. However, from a human interest prospective, the importance of the relationship is to learn whether happiness with one’s job is related to one’s self-confidence. Although the research includes many different jobs, methods and test groups, the research is almost unanimous that, regardless of job status, there’s a strong job satisfaction/self-esteem relationship. The importance of these studies, as it relates to satisfaction/self-esteem, was that when students had feelings of success in a task, they had feelings of increased self-esteem. Also, an increase in self-esteem was linked to increased involvement, and leads to increased goal setting. The researches provide the notion that a person who has high self-esteem is likely to be more satisfied with their job. The self-esteem and job satisfaction relationship is somewhat like the “chicken or egg” phenomenon (Garcez, 2006). Furthermore, influences in each topic were various as it is coming from both the internal and external aspects of the person. Among the job satisfaction’s possible influences are working hours, work orientation, financial variables, employment contract, tenure, market, job mobility, arital status, age, quality of workers, direct supervisor relationships, and job security (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007; Harmer & Findley, 2006; Knerr, 2005; Nestor & Leary, 2000; Sukumar, 2006; Swortzel & Taylor, 2005). Theoretical Background This research is anchored on four main theories, particularly the Dispositional and Two-factor theories for the job satisfaction; and the Sociometer and Rosenberg’s theories for self-esteem. Job Satisfaction Theories Dispositional Theory Dispositional theory suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core-self evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. He argued that there are four Core-Self Evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over his/her own life, as opposed to outside forces having control leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism led to higher job satisfaction. Two-factor Theory (Motivation Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg’s Two-factor theory attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors-motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. Self-Esteem Theories Sociometer Theory An evolutionary based psychological theory, Sociometer Theory relies on an internal gauge to monitor behaviour and social inclusion. Self-esteem is the mechanism by which human beings assess their self-worth in comparison to the rest of their social group. Sociometer Theory explains the need and function of human self-esteem by stating that the sociometer is an internal gauge that moderates human behavior to ensure that exclusion from the social group is unlikely to occur (Leary & Downs, 1995). It is an evolutionary based psychological theory referring to the fact that in earlier civilizations exclusion from a social group could result in the death of an individual. The Role and Function of Self-Esteem According to Sociometer Theory Sociometer theory was initially theorized by Leary and Downs (1995) who stated that self-esteem is a mechanism by which an individual can assess their behavior and current standing in his or her social group. Leary and Downs (1995) suggested that the sociometer, which they describe as being like a fuel gauge in a motor vehicle, is an internal system for monitoring a person’s environment for cues that the person is being excluded or avoided. According to Leary and Downs (1995), when the internal sociometer notes that there is a potential for exclusion, a negative affect is felt in the person; for example if a behavior leads to being ignored or ridiculed, the person undertaking the behavior may feel bad or upset. Kirkpatrick and Ellis (2003) expanded on Leary and Downs’ (1995) Sociometer Theory by suggesting that self-esteem has separate functions and domains across the human psyche, in order to monitor various types of social interactions and accordingly it is possible for there to be more than one internal sociometer. Kirkpatrick and Ellis (2003) suggested that the sociometer’s function was not only to ensure that an individual was not excluded from their social group but also to rate the strength of the social group compared to other groups. Sociometer theory maintains that self-esteem evolved to check one’s level of status and acceptance in one’s social group. Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Theory Morris Rosenberg’s Theory is a main contributor in the rebirth of self-esteem studies in social psychology, which had been dormant since the turn of the twentieth century Mruk 13). Rosenberg’s (1965) Society and the Adolescent Self-Image opened a new door to psychologists and sociologists and helped bridge a disciplinary gap with his self-esteem theory and his Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Rosenberg’s self-esteem theory relies on two factors: (1) reflected appraisals and (2) social comparisons. Regarding reflected appraisals, Rosenberg acknowledges that human communication depends in seeing matters from other people’s perspectives. In the process of taking the role of the other, we become aware that we are to see ourselves through the eyes of others. Based on the aforementioned theories, the self-esteem and the job satisfaction of a person lie in both the internal and external factors. The internal factors include the innate dispositions, the motivation (thought processes), and the feelings of the person. Innate dispositions of the person like his thoughts or feelings toward himself (self-esteem) and his beliefs on his skills influences his satisfaction level towards his work. At the same time, if the person feels he is accepted basically in all places he goes, the self-esteem of this person is most likely high. The external factor on the other hand is basically the environment where the person is. This may mean to be in specific (like the office – job satisfaction) or to be in general (that is any place where the person is). The available resources such as computers, proper lightings, and even the social groups present in his office can affect the contentment of job of the person. Furthermore, the reflected appraisals or the affirmative actions from the people present in the person’s vicinity, wherever he is in the office or not, can also contribute to his self-esteem. Conceptual Framework The various news in the media on soldiers, has brought this study about important factors to consider in handling workers and operating precarious organizations such the Philippine Army in Camp Evangelista, Cagayan de Oro City. These are: self-esteem and job satisfaction – the dependent variables. The meta-analytic results of the study of Judge and Bono in 2001, suggested that traits as self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability (low neuroticism) are among the best dispositional predictors of job satisfaction and job performance. Added is the study of Dr. Syptak, et al. (2000) that the variables Compensation and Benefits, Social Relationship, and Physical Work Environment make employees become productive, motivated, and committed to do work. Discontentment involving these factors may subsequently affect or contribute to a worker’s job satisfaction. The independent variables in this study which are the profile of the respondents (Age, Civil Status, Length of Service, and Job Position) are also probed since it is related to self-esteem and job satisfaction. A study indicated that employee’s age is not significantly associated with overall job satisfaction level, but that tenure is. There is also significant relationship between tenure and facets of satisfaction (job, pay, and fringe benefits), but the effect of tenure on satisfaction is significantly modified by age (Shah Jalal Sarker, Alf Crossman, and Parkpoom Chinmeteepituck. 2003). Furthermore, among the job satisfaction’s possible influences are working hours, work orientation, financial variables, employment contract, tenure, market, job mobility, marital status, age, quality of workers, direct supervisor relationships, and job security (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007; Harmer & Findley, 2006; Knerr, 2005; Nestor & Leary, 2000; Sukumar, 2006; Swortzel & Taylor, 2005). Innate dispositions of the person like his thoughts or feelings toward himself (self-esteem) and his beliefs on his skills influences his satisfaction level towards his work. If the person feels he is accepted basically in all places he goes – including in his office – the self-esteem of this person is most likely high. Furthermore, if the external factors like pay, company policies, tasks, and supervisory practices are present in a person’s working environment which are viewed (thought processes) by the worker as something that is worth their efforts; then this person will also be satisfied in his job as explained by the Two-factor (Motivation Hygiene) Theory. Therefore, the higher the self-esteem (disposition) or the more confident the person is, the more he is contented as a worker. The schematic diagram (figure 1) shows the relationship of the variables that will be investigated in this study. Independent Variables Dependent Variables Self-Esteem Level Job Satisfaction Level on the ff: * Work Function * Interpersonal Relationships Compensation and Benefits * Physical Work Environment Profile of the Soldiers: * Age * Civil Status * Length of Service * Job Position Figure 1 – Schematic Diagram Showing the Relationship of the Variables Scope and Limitation of the Study This study will focus on the self-esteem level and job satisfaction level of the soldiers in Camp Evangelista, Cagayan de Oro City. These military personnel are only those who are active in service with ages ranging from 21-39 (Young Adult) and 41-64 (Middle Adult). The job satisfaction level is measured only by these four factors: work function, social relationship, compensation and benefits, and physical work environment. The self-esteem level is measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale which focuses only on the over-all evaluation of one’s worth or value. This study covers only 30% of the soldiers’ population in Camp Evangelista. And it is centered only on what level of job satisfaction and self-esteem do these soldiers have; and determining level of job satisfaction and level of self-esteem when grouped according to the respondents’ profile (age, civil status, length of service, and job position). Significance of the Study This study offers perspectives regarding the self esteem and job satisfaction of young adult soldiers and middle adult soldiers. The nature of work of the soldiers is traditionally perceived as an essential part of the war. Soldiers who are well satisfied with the job, would perform better on the field knowing that they have assurance that they are well benefited as to their field of work. Soldier’s job satisfaction will help them staying committed to their work that would also raise their self-esteem and make them more eager to stay in their jobs. The self esteem of soldiers also could help the soldier’s commitment and attitudes towards their job and also help boosting up their morals in battle. The soldiers are expected to utilize their skills learned and develop in their trainings during the battlefield. If the soldiers’ self-esteem is low there is a probability that they would not perform the tasks given to them. The study of the level of job satisfaction and the level of self-esteem among the soldiers of Camp Evangelista, Cagayan de Oro City is to provide a current view for the people, especially in the city, to redefine and assess themselves; most importantly to those who have a say on this job, on handling such. These people include organizations and professionals handling them. This study will also be beneficial to the authorities in the military. This would give them an idea on knowing the current self-esteem and job satisfaction of their co-militaries at the moment. The families of the respondents could also benefit from this study as they will able to know if they are still satisfied with their jobs and if they still feel good about themselves. If soldiers who are well satisfied with their work, they would perform better as protectors in our nation knowing they have the assurance that they in turn will benefit and be taken care of through its compensations. Furthermore, this area of study is important because it would give more insights on the importance and possible effects of self-esteem in elevating these soldiers’ skills, attitudes towards their work, morale, and commitment in what they do for the nation. And at the same time to prevent undesirable events such as the recent hostage crisis involving a retired policeman in appealing on his retirement benefits.
A Study on Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction. (2017, Sep 22).
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