Tuberculosis is considered the largest causes of death in the world. In the late of 1980s, TB killed million people. Actually, billions of people who have been exposed to tuberculosis bacillus bacterium are at the high risk of developing the active TB disease. The number of infectious people is rapidly increasing due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis multi-drug resistance. TB could be a massive risk to society because of non-compliance patients and an increased number of HIV/AIDS patients. TB is caused be bacteria mycobacterium called tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis mainly attacks lungs, however, it can attack any parts of the human body such as spine, brain, and kidney. Sighs and symptoms are varied depending on which organs are infected. TB is a fatal disease that spread through the air from infected person to a healthy person by inhalation of the bacteria. Unfortunately, Mycobacterium tuberculosis spreads extremely and rapid. In addition to, MTB is contagious, it is an opportunist disease as it exploits individuals who have weak immunity and weak self-defense mechanisms. Tuberculosis mycobacterium attacks especially patients with HIV and AIDS disease which weaken their immune system. The medicines that can care and treat TB is available for a long time, however, TB still a disease that leads to death in recent days.
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis species. It is non-motile and obligate aerobe cellular respiration. Acid-fast stain is used to identify the bacteria. TB is a rod-shaped bacteria. Specifically, it is a Bacillus bacteria. The bacteria has a unique cell wall as it is mainly composed of a mycolic acid cell wall. The cell wall is a hydrophobic waxy lipid. MTB is a resistance to dye which used in gram stain as the mycolic acid cell wall prevents dye uptake. The cell wall contains peptidoglycan inside the mycolic acid. Bacteria must be heated to effectively stain with carbolfuchsin dye. The mycolic acid in the cell wall protects bacteria against the immune response in the infectious person. MTB is small that needs aid microscope to be seen. Mycobacterium tuberculosis does not form spores.
TB is a harmful contiguous disease which mainly infects lungs. Bacteria that cause tuberculosis spreads from person to another through droplets released in the air when coughing and sneezing. People who exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis may get infected, however, exposure to TB does not always lead to infection. When person inhales droplets bacteria and reach the alveoli in the lung where TB infection begins powerful macrophages engulf the bacteria and destroy them. In fact, strong immune system attacks the bacteria and successfully fight it. Unfortunately, Mycobacterium tuberculosis can still alive for many years after the immune system attacks it and wine the battle. It is a latent form of the bacteria. Latent TB has no signs or symptoms. Individuals who carting latent TB are not sick. When the immune system weakens at any point for any factors such as HIV/AIDS or old age factors latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis may reactive and produce active TB diseases.
Active TB is contagious. They can spread the infection. They have the symptoms and signs of TB disease. General symptoms of pulmonary TB are a loss of appetites, fever, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, weakness, and night sweat. Respiratory symptoms of pulmonary TB are coughing for more than three weeks, coughing up blood and sputum. Shortness of breath and chest pain are common signs of pulmonary TB diseases.
If TB is not treated properly, it may spread beyond the lungs and infect other parts of the body. Active tuberculosis leaves the lungs through the bloodstream or through the lymph to spread the infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis needs a long period of treatment regimens.
Protection against tuberculosis diseases has to be taken into individuals and responsible consideration. Teach the culture of hand washing and covering the mouth during sneezing and coughings necessary to prevent the spread of the TB disease. People carrying TB should stop using public transportation to control the infection from spreading. They should avoid gathering with large numbers of people. They should ventilate their rooms and get fresh air. Individuals who have active TB must take their medicine properly on time and follow doctor instructions to avoid developing drugs resistance. Children supposed to get the (BCG) vaccines. BCG is a powerful protection against TB. People with latent TB should be treated and take the right medicine before developing active TB.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a disease that targets youth, adult, children, and women. In facts, all ages and gender are the risks to have tuberculosis. HIV patients and AIDS patients are more likely to have active TB as their immune system is at the weakest cases. All individuals who are suffering from other conditions that weaken the immune system are at high risk to develop active TB. Smokers are the target for Mycobacterium tuberculosis as tobacco smoke cause blockage of immune cells in the human body and weaken their abilities to fight bacteria that causes the TB disease.
TB diseases require a close exposure for the infection to occur so individuals who work or live with infectious persons are at high risks to get infected with TB diseases.
Treatment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is available but it is quite costly and should be managed for six to nine month depends on patients conditions. If the treatment does not manage properly, it might increase the risk of developing TB drugs resistance. Doctors treat latent TB with antibiotics to lower the chances to become an active disease.
Diagnosing and treatment Latent TB is an essential step to prevent reactivate T uberculosis. Treating lateent TB is a life and cost saving. In fact, people who born outside the USA are more likely to have tuberculosis. Active and latent TB is more common in foreign-born in the USA. new arriving individuals ususally undergo for examination and screening for TB infection in primary care and health clinic. There are several regimens treatments plans available for TB.first regimen is nine months of isoniazid. it shows progressive to reduce the rate of developing active TB. the patient should complete the fully does. However, the completion rate of the nine months of isoniazid is not a high percentage. Nine months of isoniazid is less effective treatment than other regimens. Disadvantages of nine months regimens is its side effects hepatotoxicity and neuropathy. The second regimen is three months of isoniazid and rifampin weakly does with directly observed therapy. It is an alternative treatment choice to prevent the developing of active tuberculosis. In addition, there is another treatment plan for latent TB of three months of daily rifampin and isoniazid. Advantages of this regimen are the short period and less cost. Daily rifampin for four months is considered an alternative regimen for latent TB especially for people who can not bear nine months of isoniazid or who have TNH-resistant TB. this research paper armies to compare the completion rate of the three treatment regimens through a various population.
A study was conducted for patients who began treatment for nine months isoniazid, rifampin only, or isoniazid and rifapentine by collecting their records from hospitals and TB clinics. This record included patients for the year 2009 or between july 1,2013 and June 30,2014. This study included health units for immigrants, refugees and homeless. Pharmacy records were checked for prescriptions given to TB patients but separate from other records. However, the study did not include AIDS patients since they had special hospitals to treat them and the overlap between drug interactions. Patients were evaluated for latent TB treatment. Even the sides effects were evacuated as well. The relationship between treatment completion and type of monitoring was monitored and examined Since the type of treatment and type of monitoring may be linked.
This study included 393 patients who are man than women with average age of 43.6 years. 224 patients treat with 9 months of isoniazid who were were less likely to complete treatment than other regimen followers. 82 patients used four months of rifampin regimen. 87 patients cured with three months of isoniazid and rifapentine. 87 and 82 patients were more likely to complete their therapy. Patients who treated in public health TB clinics are more likely to complete the therapy and treatment regimens than patients in the employee or refugee clinics. In addition, patients with weekly direct observed therapy are more likely to complete treatment han those with monthly monitoring. This prove the strong relationship between the treatment regimen and the monitoring.
In conclusion, Comparison between different treatment regimens shows the rates of treatment completion and the relationship between treatment regimens and monitoring. This study demonstrates the similarities of side effects between different treatment regimens. Three months of isoniazid and rifapentine regimen and four months of rifampin are similar favorable choices for patients. However, 4 months of rifampin cost less than other regimen and does not require DOT which make it an optimal treatment to obtain the maximum effectiveness.
A professional writer will make a clear, mistake-free paper for you!Get help with your assignment
Please check your inbox
I'm Chatbot Amy :)
I can help you save hours on your homework. Let's start by finding a writer.Find Writer