Nepal National Park Tourism

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The Nepali government currently does not control the number of tourists allowed into Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) due to the negative consequences that it would have on the livelihoods and people dependent on the tourism both within the park and outside of it (Sanjay, 2005). As stated in the Sagarmatha Park: Porter Survey and Analysis “Tourism related changes have been suggested to have negative connotations including: disruption of the social and cultural fabric; pressure on forests and pastures; growing waste disposal problems; decline in crop yields and cropping area, etc.” (Brower & Dennis, 1998; Coppock, 1978; Ives, 2004; Lachapelle, 1998). Over the course of a year, thousands of climbers and workers make their way to Everest Base Camp for the climbing season. As a result of their presence in this region, approximately 12,000 kg of solid human waste is produced. Because the human waste disposed of in these unlined pits is untreated, and us positioned directly about the Khumbu glacier river that feeds into the water sources for the villages downstream, it poses a health hazard for the Sherpa people living in this region (Salerno et all 2010).

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The Sagaramatha Pollution Control Committee (SPCC) was created in 1991 as a means to protect the environment on and near Mt. Everest. Viable methods for the disposal of human trash have been developed, but there are currently no proper disposal methods for human waste. Water pollution was identified as the most serious health problem in Nepal in the State of Environment Report published in 2001, and the contributing factors to the pollution include human activities and domestic sewage (Stevens 1995). In order to proactively address the issue, permanent monitoring sites were developed to monitor water quality and solid waste management which includes generation and disposal of waste (Salerno et. all 2010).

Cultural degradation is also an important element to consider, as the people who are home to this area have cared for the land up to this point. Indigenous Sherpas have left SNP to find more remunerative work (nationally and internationally) due to their unique physical advantages, and experience as high altitude mountain guides. (Panzeri, Caroli, Haack 2013). As a result of their leaving, there is a demand for non-native workers to come in and inhabit the place. A publication was produced by the project entitled, “Institutional Consolidation for the Coordinated and Integrated Monitoring of Natural Resources towards Sustainable Development and Environmental Conservation in the Hindu Kush–Karakoram–Himalaya Mountain Complex,” that examined the social-ecological systems of remote mountainous regions and ways in which decision-makers within the region can work towards sustainable development while raising awareness of the ecological impact of development efforts and potential ways those can be mitigated. (Salerno et. all 2010). 

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Nepal National Park Tourism. (2021, Dec 29). Retrieved December 3, 2022 , from

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