In order to win from the Major League Soccer (MLS) in 2019, we will train a 25-year-old man playing in Midfield. Midfielder, the toughest position in soccer, must be fast and require great stamina. I’d like to make the periodization training program for the MLS soccer season, which usually starts in March and ends in October. The periodization training program is an important part of training to reduce excessive training and improve performance. Training plans can be structured with the concept of periodicity. The concept of periodization can be described as the segmentation of training objectives and the coordination of training loads. The goal of training is to show the best performance at the optimal time, but achieving that goal requires a step-by-step development.
Annual training programs are divided into several training phases according to their goals, and each of them consists of several detailed aspects. There are several long-term trainings in the detailed phases, and the long-term trainings consist of several short-term trainings. Moreover, daily training, the smallest unit of the periodic program, is a component of short-term trainings. If a soccer player spends too much time preparing and playing, he or she is stressed from physiological and psychological fatigue. Physiological fatigue of the body is recoverable with a few days of rest, but the psychological stresses from repetitive trainings and games are difficult to eliminate with just two to three days of rest.
Continuing training in this situation will have a negative impact in many ways. Therefore, the goal is to get rid of mental and physical fatigue, and prepare for intensive training at the next basic physical training stage. In particular, a competitor who has not participated in training or competition due to a sports related injury must recover during this period, and prepare for the next season. In general, at the end of the October, they take a full week or two off before working on low intense aerobic endurance exercises. In the first and second weeks of November, three games are played each week to help them relieve their accumulated fatigue and psychological tension during the season. They should exercise four or five times a week for three or four weeks.
It should also be used as an analysis period of the competition results and training programs over the past season, and as a development period of new team tactics and annual training plans. . The training phase, which runs through December, aims to eliminate fatigue, relieve physical and mental stress, recover from injury, and maintain basic physical strength. The training program focuses on physical training such as swimming, climbing, and interval training.
In the next step, training should be conducted to improve overall endurance, muscle endurance and flexibility, which are the physical factors required primarily by soccer players. The first three weeks should be filled with a long-distance race focused on endurance. Repetition of 12 and 15 sets of 3 weight training will improve muscle endurance and strength. In addition to physical training, separate hours should be used for technical and tactical training. At this stage, it is important to focus on individual skills training and allocate a lot of time to partial tactics on the tactical side.
In basic fitness steps, enough nutrition and recovery time should be provided after training. During this time, they have to build up their stamina to play all year round. However, the desire to achieve so much in a short period of time often leads players injured by training. Training plans should be properly established to prevent injury from excessive training. In other words, intensive physical training should not last more than three days, and poor skills and tactical training should be connected so that they can recover from the fatigue of intensive training. During the cold weather, they should perform warm-up and clean-up exercises to prevent injury.
The training phase, which runs through December, aims to eliminate fatigue, relieve physical and mental stress, recover from injury, and maintain basic physical strength. The training program focuses on physical training such as swimming, climbing, cross-country, and interval training. Beginning in January, the training phase sets goals such as full body endurance, muscle endurance, improvement of basic physical strength to adapt to the next level of intensive training and supplementing personal skills. The training programs include endurance, flexibility, weight training, individual and position supplemental and partial tactical training.
In particular, in case of weight training, the strength of the exercise shall consist of a maximum muscle, 40 to 50 percent of 1RM, 12 to 15 repetitions, and 3 to 4 sets of sets. As a training for basic full-body endurance, no special training tools are required, and train for 5 minutes of warm-up exercise, 80 minutes of fitness, and 10 minutes of cool-down training. It consists of 95 minutes in total.
Next step is the most important period of the entire training phases because the period from February to the pre-competition phase is the physical, psychological, technical and tactical preparation period for the competition phase. The focus of training should be on improving speed and energy. They will exercise six days a week. From a tactical perspective, training focuses on the operation of team tactics with partial individual tactics are required.
Interval training and various jumping training methods are often used to training soccer players if necessary. Rather than focusing only on the outcome of a game, the team should focus on evaluating its tactical operational capabilities and improving its ability to change its strategy according to the other team. In particular, athletes should be encouraged to identify their strengths and weaknesses rather than adopting the leader’s unilateral injection method. During the preparation phase, the focus is heavy on weight training repetitively for four to five times a week, about two sets a week.
Most soccer leaders must complete weight training for three to four weeks during the winter training and then prepare both once a week to maintain the highest intensity and continuity without weight training throughout the year. The preparation phase can be divided into the general preparation phase and the special preparation phase, depending on the time period, and a period prior to two to three weeks from the competition phase can be set to the special preparation phase.
Starting two to three weeks before the start of the season, the training aims to increase speed, improve strength, and complete team strategies. Training consists of short interval training, jumping practice for agile training, team tactics and training competitions, and weight training. For weight training, 85 to 90% of the strength of the exercise, 3 to 4 times a week, and set once a week. With a total of 85 minutes of training, player will practice moving with the ball for 25 minutes, receive 50 minutes of conditional training, use obstacles such as dribbles, pass training, one game, and carry out cool down for 10 minutes.
In order to stay in top shape during the regular season, physical training will focus on power and speed maintenance training, tactical changes, and psychological and mental preparations depending on the outcome of each game and other teams. In order for a competition or competition to have the best run in a specific period of time, the competition phase program must be started three weeks before the competition. For the first two weeks, focus is on net impotence and speed training.
For three weeks, less training and more strategic and spiritual preparations are necessary. Training plans or programs at the stadium will be affected by the competition schedule. If the duration of the game is not fixed like a professional soccer, it is very important to maintain the strength and net strength developed through various stages. This should be included in the training program at least once a week. During the game, weight training is carried out by selecting 8 to 10 items that are required by the soccer player, with repeated 3 to 5 times, with a high intensity of exercise (90 to 98% of the RMs).
If there is a competition every Sunday and there is a competition twice a week on the day of approval, the training strength must be adjusted according to the competition schedule. In case of two games on the day of entry and Sunday, Monday must be filled with light exercises, including tactical training, and also on Friday and Saturday nights. If the competition continues twice a week, the competition itself is carried out in two intensive training sessions, which can cause participants to be exhausted and demonstrate low performance. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the concentration control.
Finally, the goal is to maintain the best performance by training during the season. The goal is to maintain the best condition, performance, and recover quickly according to an ongoing schedule. Training programs provide speed, agility training, partial tactical training, team training, supplemental training on tactical strengths and weaknesses, tactical readiness for the other, and weight training with 90~95% of maximum intensity.
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