The body naturally reacts to activity by sweating, breathing heavily and your heart pumping. These physiological factors are important to the body state of homeostasis. The body stays consistent during regular functions but changes with exercise that affect the body’s temperature, blood oxygen levels, sugar levels and hydration. Keeping these properties regulated during exercise is necessary for cell, tissue, and muscle survival. Therefore, the body uses the automatic feedback system to preserve normal temperature and water levels to maintain homeostasis. Proper water intake and eating healthy also helps your body maintain homeostasis.
The body is constantly using the metabolic process to maintain life. Your body uses metabolism as the sum of all chemical reactions that take place, these chemical reactions are catabolism and anabolism. Catabolic reactions produce energy and anabolic reaction use energy. Extra energy is stored in fat molecules that is used for long term storage. Catabolic reaction starts by the breakdown of organic molecules into smaller molecules which releases the energy from chemical bonds. The amount of energy that is released is less than the total amount that is contained in the molecules. The transfer of catabolic reaction is from higher energy moles which is ATP adenosine triphosphate this energy is released in cells that are immediate used to power molecular mechanisms that support cells, tissues and other organ function. ATP also builds new tissue and repairs damaged tissue. ATP is stored in the body to fulfill future energy demands.
The storage of the ATP molecules drives all bodily function in the body it contracts muscle, maintains electoral pulses to nerve cells, and absorbs food in the gastrointestinal tract. ATP is produced by catabolic reaction of proteins that are broken down into amino acids, lipids that are broken down into fatty acids and polysaccharides which is than broken down into monosaccharides. These are the building blocks that are used for the synthesis of molecules in anabolic reaction. Anabolic reaction requires energy from the catabolic reaction. This happens when the chemical reaction from ATP changes to ADP. The cells in anabolic reaction are combined with the catabolic reaction from the cells that release energy. The cells that release energy are used by chemical fuels into cellular energy, which is then used to imitate energy required from anabolic reaction to free energy that is release from the hydration of the phosphate group (Lumen). Hormones regulate the metabolism which is the metabolic process of catabolic and anabolic reactions. Catabolic hormones stimulate the breakdown of molecules and the production of energy, by using cortisol, glucagon, adrenaline/epinephrine, and cytokinesis. All these hormones are mobilized at specific times to the meet the needs of the body. Anabolic hormones are required for synthesis of molecules which includes the growth of hormones, insulin, testosterone, and estrogen. Catabolic hormones are the function of hormones. Cortisol is releases from the adrenal glands in response to stress; its main role is to increase blood glucose levels by braking down fats and proteins.
Glucagon is released from alpha cells in the pancreas, they are used to generate additional energy and stimulate the breakdown of glycogen in the liver to increase glucose levels. It is part of the negative feedback system that stabilizes blood glucose levels. Adrenaline and epinephrine are released by the active to the sympathetic nervous system, it increases heart rate and constricts blood vessels along with dilating the bronchi of the lung to increase air volume in the lungs. Anabolic hormones maintain the function of hormones. The growth hormone is synthesized and released from the pituitary gland to stimulate growth of the cells, tissue, and bones. Insulin like growth factors stimulate the growth of muscles and bone while inhibiting cell death (apoptosis). Insulin is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas and play an essential role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism to control blood glucose levels. It works to maintain the proper levels of glucose in the body by using muscle, adipose tissue, and liver to take glucose from the blood and store in in the liver and muscles as glucagon (Betts, J.G., Desaix, P., Johnson, E., Johnson, J.E., Korol, O., Kruse, D., … Young, K.A. (2017). Testosterone is produced in the testicles of males and ovaries in females, it stimulates and increase in muscle mass and strength as well as growth and strengthening of bones in the body. Estrogen is produced in the ovaries, liver and adrenal glands its anabolic function is increase metabolism and fat deposition (OpenStax). In exercise hormonal responses have an acute response to tissue growth and remodeling chronic changes. Anabolic hormones are released during physical activity and hormones are released by the hormones in catabolic reaction to produce energy during physical activity. (Lumen).
Nephrons are the filtration function unit of the kidneys. The nephrons filtering of the kidneys is used to separate water, ions, and small molecules from the blood, filter out waster and toxins and returns needed molecules to the blood. Nephron function occurs through the ultrafiltration of pressure from blood that then forces water and other small molecules into the capillary walls. The ultrafiltrate of blood and water travels through the various loops of the nephron, where water and important molecules are removed into the collecting ducts that drain into the bladder (Biology Dictionary). The filtration process in the nephron happens when blood enters the afferent arteriole and flows into the glomerulus. Inside the glomerulus cells and serum will move water and nitrogenous waste. Blood that is pumped from the heart will enter the kidneys to undergo the filtration process, the blood that is filter will flow through the rest of the body to facilitate tissue perfusion and gas exchange. The next step is reabsorption of molecules and ions that will be reabsorbed into the circulatory system.
The fluid that passes through the nephron system will include the convoluted tubules, loop of Henle, and the collecting ducts. Water and ions are removed as the fluid osmolarity changes in the collecting ducts this prepares for waste to be secreted. Secretion is the last step in the nephron system. Hydrogen ions and creatinine is removed from the blood through the peritubular capillary network into the collecting ducts. What is not absorbed will be passes as urine. Urine is mostly water that has not been reabsorbed, it is the body’s way to lower blood volume, by increasing the amount of water that become urine instead of becoming reabsorbed. Urine is highly soluble that is made up of ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitrone this is the body’s way of removing it (Lumen).
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates the amount of water that is excreted by the body. When blood volume is low the concentration of solutes in the blood is high therefore the hypothallus senses the low blood volume and increase serum osmolality to synthesize ADH which is a small peptide molecule. The pituitary gland than releases ADH into the blood system and cause the kidneys to retain water by concentrating urine and reducing urine volume. Water retention increases blood volume and decrees serum osmolality. Natriuretic hormones are the peptide hormones that stimulate the kidneys to excrete sodium an effect opposite of that of aldosterone. Natriuretic hormones act by inhibiting the aldosterone release by Na+ that is recover in the collecting duction. When Na+ work to release urine, high sodium is high but also work to recover water. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), is produced by the parathyroid gland to decrees calcium levels. It is stimulated when hydroxylation of calcitriol is active. It blocks the reabsorption of phosphate which can be lost during urination (OpenStax).
Aldosterone is the major mineralocorticoid hormone. It is synthesized in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex which is the zona glomerulosa. It plays a vital role int regulating blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis, through absorption of sodium and water. Aldosterone is the principle mineralocorticoid. It increases sodium and water by resorption in the kidneys which is than exchange for potassium and hydrogen. Aldosterone release angiotensin II, which converts angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (Rainey, E., William. Bollag, B., Wendy., Isales., M Carlos., Regulation of aldosterone production., Pages 361-381., (2009).
Acid base balance woks in the kidneys by regulating the pH. The kidneys adjust the pH by protons and buffers which secretes acid in the form of hydrogen ions. The kidney secretes excess hydrogen ions in the proximal tubule. Buffers filtered by the glomerulus which have phosphate and bicarbonate that work to minimize the acidity of the tubular fluid. Collection duct take the filter urine and excrete it out of the body, by this time it can be acidity, basic or neutral this is the final stage of determining the final pH which happens in the collecting duct.
Homeostasis is critical for the body; many complex mechanisms regulate energy intake and maintain body weight. For weight maintains the body needs energy intake that is balanced. Metabolic imbalances can come for energy that is off balance by expenditure changes. This effects the energy that is stored energy intake and energy expenditure. This can slow down the metabolism which causing weight gain and weight loss can form stored energy that is from starvation or extreme physical activity. Low metabolic rate is also assoicated with weight gain (Galgani J, Ravussin E. (2008). Metabolic disorders effect weight gain and loss by abnormal chemical reaction in the body. When the body’s organs such as the liver, pancreas, small intestines or larger intestine do not function proper this can cause for metabolic disease that disrupt the normal homoeostasis effect weight (Fernandes, John; Saudubray, Jean-Marie; Berghe, Georges van den (2013).
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