Literature review: Deforestation is not a new phenomenon and it has been continued since centuries but its repercussions were not known in the medieval or later periods. Its repercussions have shown great diversity of threats not only to mankind but also to the earth and the scientists and other organizations have been keenly working on its limitations. There are some parts of the earth which are richer in forests than the rest of the world and Amazon is one of them. In Amazon deforestation is taking place at extensive level and there are no precautions being taken in this regard many researches have shown the abyssal magnitude of the issue. Gabrielle Ferreira Pires and Marcos Heil Costa have rightly said that the deforestation in the Amazon can alter the climate of the region and they are of the view that the deforestation can result in to the bioclimatic envelop such as savannas. Using the research conducted by Gabrielle Ferreira Pires and Marcos Heil Costa can be of very much help in the research regards as they have researched the precipitation effects and the sub regional effects of deforestation separately. (Pires & Costa, 2013) Similarly carbon emission at extensive level and forest conversion and wood harvesting are not in equilibrium in the Amazon and the research conducted by Masek, Cohen, Leckie, and Wulder has shown the rates of extraction of the carbon di oside from the factories and other organizations and also the rate of deforestation. They have also given the intent about the Aforestation and reforestation which can change the cliamtic structure. They have discussed elaborately the climate changes occuring in the Amazon due to excessive carbon di oxide emission and this research can be helpful while researching for the deforestation in the Amzaon. (Masek, Cohen, Leckie, & Wulder, 2011) The dire need of wood is also important and the wood products which are circulated throughout the world are also essential yet living in good and healthy conditions is most important and Page, Werf, Morton, and Pereira have given in insight n this subject by telling that the forests of the Amazon are less suitable for such commodities and hence they should not be wiped of from the earth as they are of lesser use than the wood found else where in the world. They have given reasons and arguments about their research and this research can be of great help while reseraching for deforestation in Amazon. (Page, Werf, Morton, & Pereira, 2010) R. E. Dickinson and his fellows have given the tropical conditions of the Amazon area and the flora and fauna of the Amazon has been discussed. The research which they have conducted can be used in the research for the deforestation of the Amazon as their research can help in many regards from climatic attitude of Amazon to types of plants present in the forests of the Amazon.(Pitman, Henderson-Sellers, Dickinson, Durbidge, & KennedyK., 1993). On the same note, an extensive research has been conducted which was for the carbon stocks and fluxes and this research was conducted during the time period of 1985-2009. This shows the amount of research work which has been incorporated in the research by the group of scholars including Toomey, Roberts, Caviglia-Harris, and Cochrane. Their research work can be modified and used in the deforestation in amazon research work. (Toomey, Roberts, Caviglia-Harris, & Cochrane, 2013) Talking about forest vegetation in Amazon, Deborah Lawrence has given an abstract which shows that the vegetation in the forests in Amazon can impact upon the surroundings to a great extent and this also shows that the process of deforestation is harmful for the climate of Amazon. The research has been conducted in this manner that there are expert opinions as well as suggestions for the climate of the Amazon and this research can be used in the research paper of deforestation in Amazon. (Runyan, D’Odorico, & Lawrence, 2012) An explanation with regards to rainy season in Amazon has been given in a research paper which shows the diurnal range of rainfall in the amazon and the effects of deforestation on the rainfall. This research elaborates the impacts of deforestation on the climate of the Amazon and its surroundings and the typical climate of amazon is changing with the changing times. (Butt, Oliveira, & Costa, 2011). R. Yang and G. K. Walker have also researched on the same phenomenon like Nathalie Butt and others did and said that the rainy season in the Amazon has decreased to a greater low. In furtherance they have showed through their research that reforestation in the Amazon can only happen if deforestation is stopped at first phase and evapotranspiration decrease which will cause more rains. This research can be used in the deforestation in Amazon research paper. (Sud, Yang, & Walker, 1996). Another research in this regard has been conducted adding to the previous research a comparison of the wet season in the Amazon with a dry season in the Amazon. The authors have conducted a thorough research which has showed that deforestation in the Amazon and its suburbs has disturbed the ecology of the suburbs and the Amazon itself to a relatively greater extent and the wet season which was deemed to stay away from Amazon has been being experienced in the Amazon. (Biggs, Dunne, Domingues, & Martinelli, 2002)
Biggs, T. W., Dunne, T., Domingues, T. F., & Martinelli, L. A. (2002). Relative influence of natural watershed properties and human disturbance on stream solute concentrations in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon basin. Water Resources Research, pp 251-255. Butt, N., Oliveira, P. A., & Costa, M. H. (2011). Evidence that deforestation affects the onset of the rainy season in Rondonia, Brazil. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 1545-1560. Masek, J. G., Cohen, W. B., Leckie, D., & Wulder, M. A. (2011). Recent rates of forest harvest and conversion in North America. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 158-184. Numata, I., Cochrane, M. A., & Roberts, D. A. (2010). Biomass collapse and carbon emissions from forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, pp 365-398. Page, Y. L., Werf, G. R., Morton, D. C., & Pereira, J. M. (2010). Modeling fire-driven deforestation potential in Amazonia under current and projected climate conditions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, pp 225-246. Pires, G. F., & Costa, M. H. (2013). Deforestation causes different subregional effects on the Amazon bioclimatic equilibrium. Geophysical Research Letters, 3618–3623. Pitman, M. J., Henderson-Sellers, A., Dickinson, R. E., Durbidge, T. B., & KennedyK., P. J. (1993). Tropical deforestation: Modeling local- to regional-scale climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres , pp 7289–7315. Runyan, C. W., D’Odorico, P., & Lawrence, D. (2012). Physical and biological feedbacks of deforestation. Reviews of Geophysics, pp 224-245. Sud, Y. C., Yang, R., & Walker, G. K. (1996). Impact of in situ deforestation in Amazonia on the regional climate: General circulation model simulation study. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, pp 7095–7109. Toomey, M., Roberts, D. A., Caviglia-Harris, J., & Cochrane, M. A. (2013). Long-term, high-spatial resolution carbon balance monitoring of the Amazonian frontier: Predisturbance and postdisturbance carbon emissions and uptake. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, pp 400–411.
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