Cultural Diversity and Hate Crime Correlation

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Participants were not at risk of physical harm because each participant was sitting down in the seat they chose and had their own space. If any student felt that they were be emotionally affected by the survey while listening to the researchers describe the study before the surveys are passed out, that student was able to choose not to take the survey. The researchers obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval by completing a test before the end of the semester.

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This study was be conducted by the research group printing out 100 surveys for the 100 students in the sample. Transport to Wesley Hall of Arts and Sciences on the campus of Central State University; the researchers asked various professors how many students were in their class(es), and asked for permission to conduct the study during class time. After the researchers calculated 100 students and gained consent from the teachers, then the researchers addressed themselves to the beginning of each class period they selected. Before passing out the surveys, the researchers presented what their study was about to the class, and confirmed to the students that the data would be kept secure by the students not putting their names or identification numbers on the surveys. On the top of each survey will state in bold that each student shall not put their name or identification number to keep the data and the participant secure Also, if any student chose not to participate in the study, they could have informed one of the researchers and a survey would not have handed it to them. The students were handed the survey and could use either a pen or pencil to complete. Once completed, the students were instructed to fold the surveys and place them in a box that would be safely guarded by the researchers. After submitting the survey, each student was awarded a piece of candy for participating in the study.

The Survey Research Method was conducted to obtain the answer to the research question. The data collection method that was used obtained the data to be placed on a written survey. The questions were Partially-open ended Questions, which are Closed-ended Questions with an Open-ended Other option.

Procedures

The independent and dependent variables helped the group form questions that went on the survey. The independent and dependent questions were scattered throughout the survey in no specific order. After reviewing the completed surveys, the answers from the variable were tallied, sorted, and used to find the mean and standard deviation of the findings. The written survey that was used was a written questionnaire used to obtain standardized information from a targeted sample. The participants were assigned to circle or check off the answers they chose. There were 25 questions on the survey. With each question, the participants had a choice to circle one out the 2-5 answers to the question, including the option of an Other answer. There were demographic questions on the survey, pertaining to the participant’s opinion.

Instrumentation

The sample size consisted of 100 students of various ages and backgrounds. The majority of the students were African American at Central State University. The students were in Wesley Hall of Arts and Sciences. Candy was administered to each student after they submitted the survey.

Study participants

The participants for this study were enrolled at Central State University.

Participants

Method

The previous 2016 election has shined a light on racism in the present day; bigotry and racism can lead to a hate crime occurring. Hate crimes in the United States are increasing. In the aftermath of the September 11 attack, thrill-motivated hate crimes tended to decline as the rate of violent crime generally declined, but defensive hate crimes seemed to increase substantially (Levin & Reinchelmann, 2015). One hate crime that had sparked the nation occurred in 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama at the 16th Street Baptist Church. An African American church was bombed by a man who associated himself with the Klu Klux Klan (KKK). Four young girls had been massacred by a white supremacist’s bomb: Denise McNair, 11; Carol Robertson, 14; Addie Mae Collins, 14; and Cynthia Wesley, 14 (Meacham, n.d.). A witness identified Robert Chambliss, a member of the Ku Klux Klan, as the man who placed the bomb under the steps of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church. He was arrested and charged with murder and possessing a box of 122 sticks of dynamite without a permit. On 8th October, 1963, Chambliss was found not guilty of murder and received a hundred-dollar fine and a six-month jail sentence for having the dynamite (Ellis, 2013). Back in the early and middle 1900’s, many Caucasians who committed hate crimes were not convicted. There was so much hate, racism, and discrimination against the African American race that even the judges and juries would not convict people who killed innocent individuals because of the color of their skin. Racism is still an ongoing problem in the United States. Recently, history has been repeating itself when it comes to hate crimes against African Americans. As long as the Earth revolves, the history of the racism in the United States will never be a thing of the past.

Suspects of hate crimes can come in any shape, form, race, gender, age, and ethnicity. The majority of suspects may have a disability or show a streak of anger. Potential suspects of hate crimes have expressed hate towards certain groups or races in the past; then become interested in committing a hate crime. Thrill hate crimes can be intensely sadistic, resulting from the need of the perpetrators to experience a sense of power and control over their vulnerable victims (Levin & Reinchelmann, 2015). The majority of hate crimes are violent, and unfortunately takes the lives of people. Incidents of violence can vary in the explicitness of the prejudice motive, ranging from the overtly racist, such as the 2015 Charleston church shooting (Bauerlein & McWhirter, 2015), to the contextually ambiguous, such as the police shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri (Louis, LaMacchia, Ong & Sullivan, 2016). There is still a debate between if police brutality and excessive force could be added to the list of ways to commit hate crimes. Presently, a study or research has not been fully conducted on this topic.

Suspects of Hate Crimes

A random study conducted by Mellgren and Wallengren (2015) resulted that 102 persons (84%), reported that they had been victims of a crime which they perceived had a motive of a hate crime sometime during their lifetime. People who survive a hate crime usually plan to seek justice for and harm or wrong doing to them, someone else, an organization, or a certain race. Although, there are many suspects of hate crimes who do not get the punishments they deserve. Depending on the race majority of a jury, a suspect of a hate crime may even not receive a punishment of a hate crime. Asking various people of different races and backgrounds, Austin, Plumm, and Terrance (2014) received two different responses when they asked why some juries give the non-guilty verdict to suspects of hate crimes. Many individuals stated that all white juries are most likely to convict a Latino for a hate crime, and less likely to convict a Caucasian of a hate crime (Austin, Plumm & Terrance, 2014). Not convicting an individual of a hate crime can really harm the victim(s), physically, emotionally, and socially.

Hate crimes are never expected or predicted. They can strike in the most unexpected places and times; in churches, schools, parks, etc. Hate crimes target races, ethnicities, organizations, sexual orientations, gender, gender identity, elderly, and disability. Evidence shows that the majority of hate crime incidents in the United States and United Kingdom are motivated by race and/or ethnicity (Benier, Higginson & Wickes, 2015). Hate crimes against certain genders has been increasing over the years; in the majority of the 1900’s hate crimes were targeted to certain races and ethnicities. As the years started leading up to the 2000’s, hate crimes against genders began to surface. In subsequent years, gender has been added to the statuses listed in both federal and state hate crime policies and to the model hate crime statute developed by the Anti-Defamation League (DiNitto & McPhail, 2005). Along with gender, transgender individuals have lately been targeted the most. Recently, a hate crime was committed in Orlando, Florida; the target was the Pulse Night Club (gay bar, dance club, and nightclub). On June 12, 2016, a shooter walked into the night club shot 102 people, killing 49 of them. The shooter had shown signs of hate towards gays and transgenders; some say that he was homosexual, or was struggling with his sexuality and its implications on his religious beliefs (Schuppe, 2016). It is currently a struggle for homosexuals and transgenders to be accepted in this world’s society.

Victims of Hate Crimes

As children get older, in school they begin to learn the difference between races, ethnicities, and their history. Despite the ongoing legal debate, higher education has and continues to become increasingly diverse. Children learn to hate other races/ethnicities other than their own. They can learn from their parents or from the group of friends they hang around. Although, diversity can be defined in many ways; reflecting the presence of different points of view and ways of making meaning, which generally flows from the influence of different cultural and religious heritages. Given the history of racial/ ethnic challenges throughout the United States, the presence of racial/ethnic minorities on campus has become an issue that has received a high level of scrutiny (Hossellman & Stotzer, 2012). Before attending college, students may have hung around individuals who are the same race and have a similar background. While attending a college campus, students will interact with minorities, people with different social classes, and different preferences. Being around different races and having to interact with them can be a first time thing for some people; even for people who have not, or are not planning on attending college. Many students who have interacted with different races and ethnicities in their past, will be more culturally diverse than students who only hang around their own race.

Being culturally diverse is defined as having respect for different cultures and their differences, even though some cultures may differ between your own cultures. One of the major places individuals experience and interact with individuals of different races and backgrounds, are at school. Within education, racial and ethnic disparities are omnipresent, with people of color being under represented among those who attain credentials at every level of education. Indeed, national data from the Department of Education indicate that race is a divisive factor throughout K??“12education (Ledesma, Museus & Parker, 2015). Young children are not always aware of culture differences; other than children may see people who are not the same skin tone as them. Culture has been conceptualized as a developmental niche in which children acquire knowledge and skills (Bruschi, Cole, & Tamang, 2002, p. 1). When children see other children who do not look like themselves, they become curious and interested in what that other child does. Young children can be identified as colorblind; in other words, children don’t care what the color of your skin is, everyone is equal.

Culture Diversity

Although, it will be hard, maybe even impossible; it is important to prevent hate crimes because harming an innocent individual or more is not right. Also, the United States has the right to quote legislation, freedom of speech, religion, other preferences. There are no human beings that can change their race/ethnicity. It has a strong impact on society and groups; victims may experience an array of emotional distress such as betrayal, deep personal hurt, feelings of powerlessness, vulnerability, or anger and sadness. Some are afraid to go to certain neighborhoods or even host events because of the fear of being effected by a hate crime. The hate crimes may affect a stakeholders business by having employees profile certain customers, and not show them good customer service. Moreover, stakeholder’s products may not sell because items may be targeted to a specific race or area of interest; for example, relaxer is sold for the African American community, which includes chemicals to flatten the natural curl or thickness of the African American hair. The study has relaxer sales that are aimed to decrease 45% before 2019.

Importance of the Study

People who lack cultural diversity are at a higher risk of being involved in a hate crime than are individuals who are culturally diverse. The independent variables for this study focus on the people who are culturally diverse and the people who are not culturally diverse. The study will prove if being culturally diverse will decrease the risk of an individual committing a hate crime, compared to not being culturally diverse; indicating that an individual is at a higher risk of committing a hate crime. The dependent variables focus on the likelihood of committing a hate crime. The study will show that individuals who commit hate crimes show some kind of hate towards a certain race, ethnicity, organization, etc.

Research Hypothesis

Does the lack of cultural diversity increase the likelihood of being involved in hate crimes?

Research Question

The NCVS report surveyed victims and found that 23% of the responders in 2011??“2015 said they did not report the crime because they did not believe the police could or would help. Yet, statistics point out the reluctance of many targeted groups to deal with police due to historical difficulties with police departments, or a feeling that their interests will not be protected (Truman & Langston, 2014). This is exemplified by the Not In Our Town film Light in the Darkness. Meanwhile, the victimization of the Suffolk County, New York town of Patchogue’s Hispanic community by young men was widely known, but the attacks went unreported by the Hispanic community because of their lack of trust in the police department (Truman & Langston, 2014). With the series of hate crimes culminated with the killing of Ecuadorian immigrant Marcelo Lucero. Even stories point directly to the need for law enforcement to be leaders in this crisis and to form a solid leadership network to reach out to community partners and victims (Truman & Langston, 2014).

The Hate Crimes Reporting Gap is the huge disparity between those hate crimes reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and those that actually occur. Meanwhile they are vastly underreported; many communities cannot address a problem they don’t even know exist. In 2015 only 5,850 hate crimes were reported to the FBI by local law enforcement agencies. Yet, the BJS National Crime Investigation Survey NCVS study showed 207,880 hate crime incidents for the same year. There was eighty-eight percent of law enforcement agencies that participate in the program reported no hate crimes in their jurisdictions (What We Investigate, n.d.). The primary differences between the UCR and NCVS programs relate to victim reporting to the police and how police process, and classify incidents as hate or bias-motivated, according to the BJS (Not in Our Town, 2014).

When it comes to hate and bias crimes, they are based on: race, perceived ethnicity, religion, language, nationality, sexual identity, or immigrant status. Due to these issues, there is a widespread problem within the United States. In 2015, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) estimated that 207,880 hate crimes occurred in the United States. Less than 6,000 were reported to the FBI (Not in Our Town, 2014). The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, passed by Congress in 2009, gives the federal government the authority to investigate and prosecute crimes against victims targeted because of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, or disability. There are laws and policies alone don’t make our communities safe, and understanding the scope of the problem of hate is vital in enabling communities. The law was enforced to prevent attacks based on bias and hate (Not in Our Town, 2014).

Although when, hate crimes occur on a smaller scale there is a rare case of them all over the world. In the United States, the majority of hate crimes are racially motivated. These crimes primarily consist of intimidation, vandalism and assault. The statistics are provided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (2014) have shown that hate crimes are on the rise in America. In 2006, the number of crimes increased by 8% from the year before. Since these bleak facts show that despite how far society has advanced, hate crimes are still far from history.

The origin of hate crimes dates back to ancient civilizations. One of the earliest examples is from the Roman Empire, which was well known for persecuting various religious groups. According to several historical documents, Christianity was largely tolerated by Emperor Nero until the year 64 AD, when a tremendous fire destroyed a great portion of Rome (Crime Museum, 2017). The Emperor felt he was being blamed for the damage, so he shifted the guilt to the Christians and called for anyone who followed the religion to be punished. This led to years of hate crimes against anyone who followed the beliefs of Christianity as well as several other religious groups (Crime Museum, 2017). Many hate crimes have been so tremendous that they have affected the entire world. One of the most notable is the Nazi’s persecution of the Jewish people. When Hitler’s Final Solution called for the total annihilation of the Jews and led to building of full scale death camps. The Crime Museum (2017) stated that this dark period in world history, the Holocaust resulted in the mass murder of millions of people. In recent years, the act of genocide, or attempting to obliterate an entire ethnic, racial or religious group, has occurred in both Bosnia and Rwanda.

A hate crime is defined as any wrong doing perpetrated against a particular group of people. It is a form of prejudice directed at a group of individuals based on their ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, religious preference, or any other defining characteristic (NBC News, 2014). However, anytime two different groups of people come in contact with each other, there is the possibility of tension or conflict developing, which often leads to violence. Whether the crime in question is assault, theft, verbal abuse or even murder; the motivation behind it is based on the hatred for a group that is perceived as being different in some way.

The average number of hate crime incidents reported per year was 7,573 with an average of 9,455 victims per year (FBI, n.d.). Hate crimes can occur anywhere even in churches. In 1963, four African American girls were murdered at their church while stopping at the restroom. There was a bomb that was thrown at the basement from a man who had hate against the African American race (Ellis, 2013). The hate crimes continued in schools, events, homes, even in broad daylight. The purpose of this study was to shine light on the cruel reality of hate crimes, and to determine if hate crimes surface because of the lack of knowledge of cultural diversity.

An individual who chooses to commit a hate crime targets human beings of certain cultures, ethnicities and religious preference. If this problem is not solved then there will be even more people who do not have knowledge of different backgrounds, and more people will possibly be targeted because of their interests. The lack of culture diversity of people not exposed to different ethnic backgrounds increases their chances of committing hate crimes. The problem is a current interest, especially because the United States has elected a president who has followers who are racist bigots. As the majority of hate crimes are committed by bigoted individuals, racism is being openly revealed. There are very many people in this country and even the world who do not like. The individual even hate some genders, races, religions, organizations, groups and other preferences.

Problem Statement

Introduction

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), a hate crime as a criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, or gender identity (FBI, n.d.). In a hate crime, an individual targets human beings of certain cultures, ethnicities and religious preference. Over the past several decades, there has been an increase in hate crimes. According to the FBI’s data for 2013, most hate crime is motivated by race, accounting for 48.5 percent of all such reports (NBC News, 2014). People who lack cultural diversity are at a higher risk of being involved in a hate crime than are individuals who are culturally diverse. The study will show that individuals who commit hate crimes show some kind of hate towards a certain race, ethnicity, organization, etc.

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Cultural Diversity and Hate Crime Correlation. (2019, Dec 11). Retrieved September 27, 2022 , from
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