Collagen (Anatomy & Histology)

Abstract

Collagen is the biologically most abundant protein.It helps to make connective tissue solid, and provides cushioning for different parts of the body. Learn more about this essential protein and end up asking yourself a quiz. When we could look at a collagen fiber closely, we can see that its structure is identical to a rope’s. Growing individual collagen fiber consists of several small fibers, called macrofibrils, all of which are bound together.And all the macrofibrils consist of even tinier fibers called microfibrils themselves. This structure reflects the solid essence of collagen. Collagen has tremendous tensile strength like a chain, and can be pulled without breaking. While collagen is a strong fibre, it is also very flexible. That allows us to move and change certain parts of our body without damage.Pinch the skin on your arm for example, and push it around. It’s flexible and allows lots of movement. It goes straight back to its normal state when you let go. This is because of the collagen in skin.

Introduction

Collagen is found within the many types of connective tissue. Connective tissue is made up of a material called a matrix, with cells embedded within. The matrix can be a variety of substances, including fluid or a gel-like material. Collagen fibers are also included within that matrix. Visually, let’s imagine that the matrix is a gelatin mold, and the cells are blueberries suspended within. Now add coconut to represent the collagen fibers. If you try to pull the gelatin apart, the coconut will tend to hold it together. The same goes for the collagen within the connective tissues. Sometimes collagen bundles are arranged in a very regular pattern. This is the case within a tendon. Feel the back of your ankle just above your heel, and you’ll find your Achilles tendon. The strength of tendons comes from the regular parallel arrangement of collagen fiber bundles. Think of a single rubber band representing one collagen bundle. If you pull on it, it’ll stretch fairly easily. Now imagine pulling on a hundred parallel rubber bands at the same time. This is much harder to stretch! Collagen bundles give tendons this tough but stretchy property. In other types of connective tissue, collagen may be arranged in a more irregular manner. In our skin, there are collagen fibers, but they’re not arranged in the same way as in tendons. You can feel the difference by touching your Achilles tendon and then pulling at your arm skin. Skin is softer and much looser. Although collagen is present in both, the structure is quite different.For the collagen genetic disorders. Osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Marfan syndrome form a cluster of connective tissue genetic disorders. Such diseases display extraordinary clinical variability that represents the biochemical and molecular variations that underlie them. Deficiencies in types I and III of collagen were observed in all three syndromes.

The Main Manuscript

Collagen is the protein most present in the human body.They are proteins that combine to create filaments, fibrils to sustain. Itis produced by fibroblasts and other cells such as: bone osteoblast, teeth odontoblast. They are white in the fresh state of collagen, resisting tensile stresses.

Histological appearance (L\M)

· They are thick , non-branching.

· Fibers aggregate to form bundles.

· Bundles are wavy.

· They are moderately acidophilic , so it can be stained by eosin.

Some key points about collagen

• Collagen is present throughout the body, but particularly in the skin, bones and connective tissues.

• Some types of Gram-for-Gram collagen fibrils are stronger than steel.

• The production of collagen decreases with age and the exposure to factors such as smoking and UV light.

• Collagen can be used to attract new skin cells to wound sites in collagen dressings.

• Cosmetic lotions promising to raise the levels of collagen are unlikely to do so, because collagen molecules are too large to absorb through the skin.

Collagen is a strong, insoluble, and fibrous protein which makes up one-third of the human body’s protein. The molecules are packed together in most collagens, to form long, thin fibrils. These serve as supporting pillars, and anchoring each other’s cells. They offer firmness and elasticity to the skin. There are at least 16 different collagen types, but 80 to 90 per cent belong to collagen types 1, 2, and 3. There are various mechanisms and functions of these different forms. The collagen is solid and flexible in the [image: image3.png]human body.

Collagen helps to form a fibrous network of cells called fibroblasts in the dermis, or the middle layer of skin, upon which new cells may grow. This also plays a part in the regeneration and restoration of dead skin cells.Some collagens, like the kidneys, serve as protective coverings for fragile organs in the body. The body produces fewer collagen with age. The skin’s structural integrity shrinks.Wrinkles form, and weakens the joint cartilage. After menopause women undergo a dramatic reduction in the synthesis of collagen. A pronounced decline in collagen production is common by the age of 60.

Uses

Medical and Cosmetic

Collagen is abrasive. This means it can be broken down, transformed back into the body and processed again. It can also be formed into compacted solids or gels similar to lattice. Its diverse range of functions and the fact that it arises naturally make it clinically flexible and appropriate for various medical uses. Medical-use collagen can come from humans, cows, pigs, or goats.

Wound Dressing

Collagen can help heal wounds by attracting new skin cells to the wound site. It promotes healing and provides a platform for new tissue growth.

Collagen dressings can help heal:

· chronic wounds that do not respond to other treatment

· wounds that expel bodily fluids such as urine or sweat

· granulating wounds, on which different tissue grows

· necrotic or rotting wounds

· partial and full-thickness wounds

· second-degree burns

· sites of skin donation and skin grafts

Collagen dressings are not recommended for third-degree burns, wounds covered in dry eschar, or for patients who may be sensitive to products sourced from cows.

Collagen Placenta Cream

This drug is used as a moisturizer to treat dry, rough, scaly, itchy skin and mild skin irritations (e.g., diaper rash, skin burns from radiation therapy), or avoid them.Emollients are substances softening and moisturizing the skin and reducing itching and flaking. Such chemicals (e.g. zinc oxide, white petrolatum) are often used to protect the skin from discomfort (e.g., wetness). A lack of water in the upper layer of the skin causes dry skin. Emollients / moisturizers work by forming an oily layer that traps water in the skin at the top of the skin. These emollients are petrolatum, lanolin, mineral oil, and dimethicone. Humectants such as glycerin, lecithin, and propylene glycol attract water into the skin’s outer layer. Many goods also include ingredients that soften the horny material (keratin), which keeps together the top layer of skin cells (including urea, alpha hydroxy acids, such as lactic / citric / glycolic acid, and allantoin). This cuts down the dead skin cells, helps hold the skin in more water and leaves the skin looking healthier and stronger.

Side Effects of The Cream: For no side effects most emollients can be used safely and efficiently. And there may be pain, stinging, redness, or annoyance. If any of those symptoms continue or worsen, immediately inform your doctor or pharmacist. When this drug has been approved by your doctor note that he or she has determined that the advantage to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people who take this drug have no significant side effects. If any of these unexpected but significant side effects occur: odd changes in the skin (e.g. turning white / soft / soggy from too much moisture), symptoms of skin infection, notify your doctor right away. An allergic reaction to this drug is rare and very severe. However, seek urgent medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction including: rash, itching / swelling (especially facial / tongue / throat), extreme dizziness, breathing difficulties.

Disorders of Collagen

Ehler-Danlos Syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders involving connective tissues that sustain the skin, bones, blood vessels and many other organs and tissues. Deficiencies in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, ranging from mildly loose joints to complications that threaten life. The various types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is defined in a variety of different ways. Eleven forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were originally identified using Roman numerals to denote the categories (Type I, Type II, etc.) Researchers proposed a simpler classification (the nomenclature of the Villefranche) in 1997, which reduced the number of types to six and gave the descriptive names based on their major traits In 2017 the classification was revised to include more recently found rare types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The 2017 classification identifies 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. In most cases of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.an unusually wide range of joint movement (hypermobility) exists, and it is a hypermobile type characteristic. Children and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills like sitting , standing , and to walk. The loose joints are unstable and are prone to chronic pain and dislocation. For the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type of arthrochalasia, infants have hypermobility and both hip dislocations at birth.

Conclusion

Collagen is a general term used in skin and connective tissue for the structural proteins .A collagen diet is an eating plan to consume collagen-rich foods which some studies say to improve skin and beauty. Experts generally agree that more research is needed before proving those claims. Decreases in aging collagen can lead to problems with skin and hair.If carefully monitored, a collagen diet is comparatively safe. Collagen supplements are relatively safe, provided that a maximum dose is 20 grams per day. However, due to virus infection or toxic material some supplements have decided that they are not healthy. Collagen is abrasive. This means it can be broken down, transformed back into the body and processed again. It can also be formed into compacted solids or gels similar to lattice. Its diverse range of functions and the fact that it arises naturally make it clinically flexible and appropriate for various medical uses.

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