Urbanization in the Gilded Age

 In the beginning of the Nineteenth Century different countries immigrated to what was known the New World or Promise Land because there was better work and a better lifestyle in America. Japanese and Chinese settlers relocated to the American West Coast. Settlers lived in horribly housing conditions called Tenements.

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Most immigrants came to America to earn money to send to their families and when the families had enough money the immigrants would move back home. The Gold Rush of 1849 caused many of Chinese immigrants to move on the west coast. There were so many Chinese immigrants that Chester A. Arthur signed an act called the Chinese Exclusion Act. This act prohibited all Chinese laborers into the United States. Once the life of the New immigrant happened, Native born Americans thought their country was being over ran by foreigners.

Most businesses owners were philanthropists which means they donated money to great causes for building structures that were hospitals, libraries, and music halls. Some business owners were accused of having a monopoly or trust. This means they have complete control over supply of a product or service. Monopolies are bad because it limited people’s choices. The Bessemer Process was a cheap industrial process to speed up the making of steal to get the industrialization going. Elisha Otis was a big person during this time by inventing the elevator, to get to the top of buildings like skyscrapers. But the great change of industrialization was the Standard Oil Co. This oil company was owned by John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller had a near-monopoly of the oil business but late in his life he changed to a Philanthropy. By doing this he donated to the community and had an Abundance of Natural Resources and still save money. The Abundance of Natural Resources was that settlers used oil as medicine, and grease for their wagons and tools.  With almost every drop of the country’s oil flowing through his refineries, he was able to shape price structures and production decisions at every other phase of the process, from the oil wells to consumers homes.

Urbanization was the result of population increase; technological and economic changes offered opportunities in the urban industries and reduced the demand of labor on farms. Urbanization had some negative effects that were bad public health, population growth and pollution. Urbanization turned out to be great because it brought new job opportunities for the poor and immigrants. Urbanization had educational improvements, as well as medical improvements. Urbanization also strengthened the women’s reform and the workers union. The kids were hired on by big businesses to work in the factories or wherever they needed them to for long hours. The reason why they got hired is because they were cheap labor. During Urbanization the women were pushing for the right to vote and in 1890 the Western States gave women the right to vote. But the female suffrage only allowed the white women to vote. Led by Ida Wells, black women went against lynching and helped start the National Association of Colored Women.  

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