Urbanization has great effects on the ecosystems especially the deer population and species surrounding it. The urbanization of Springfield has included the insertion of roads, buildings, and an increase in human population. This urbanization has affected the the ecosystem as a whole and all the species living in it. One species that has seen experienced a big impact from urbanization is Deer. An increase of deer population has been seen throughout the last 10 years and has been directly correlated to the increase in human population and urbanization of Missouri. In an article published the university of missouri it explained how urbanization provides a deer with everything it could ever want because humans and their homes give deer the perfect environment to live in. They are somewhat protected by the urbanization. They have no real predator because their predators do not come around people and their homes. In a more urbanized area deer have a food supply readily available because of the plants, shrubs and trees grown and put around the buildings in their environment. Before urbanization deer would be put in the open with no buildings so predators like coyotes and bobcats can easily spot deer and attack them (Mizzou).
This increase in deer population can negatively affect the ecosystem. One main way is because they will eat all the of vegetation around them which will not only affect them but the species that live in and around that vegetation like birds. This causes an overall negative effect of the ecosystem because it does not have enough resources to supply the large population of deer. This then decreases the overall biodiversity of the ecosystem which is a negative effect on all the species. As the deer population reaches its carrying capacity then their food and shelter resources will start to diminish. Once the carrying capacity is reached, a downward slope of population will be seen because there’s not enough resources to provide for the large population of deer.
As population of deer go up then the mortality rate of deer is also to increase because of disease, hunting limits and automobile accidents.
Density dependent factors- competition among deer and diseases and parasites. As the population of deer increases in a specific area then the amount of resources will become limited
One major density independent factor that can affect the deer population is weather. In Springfield snow and freezing temperatures are the 2 factors impact deer. A deep snow can make it difficult for deer to find food and it can affect their bodies in a negative way which can lead to an increased mortality rates.
This is important because we need to understand and make better management decisions when talking about the deer population.
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