The Big Bang Theory Explanation

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The expansion of the universe has been explained from the Big Bang theory. The Big Bang described how elements were made and how planets and stars were created. The expansion could be explained by inflation, which could have created a numerous number of universes. Dark energy is able to explain why the universe has expanded so rapidly. The cosmic microwave background determined what happened in the early universe and also explains whether the universe is flat or not.

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The Big Bang is studied by scientists all over the world. The Big Bang is considered to be the reasoning behind expansion of space. There are various studies and analysis’s of where the elements may have originated from. The early universe was very hot and dense. It also only contained protons, electrons, neutrons, and a small number of other particles. Scientists questioned why stars were made of 90% hydrogen and 10% helium. Because of the particles in the universe causing a tremendous amount of heat, hydrogen went through fusion and produced helium. (Muller, 2010)

There were no other elements after the Universe was only a second old other than protons, electrons, and light. The universe was so hot that it formed a majority of the helium in the universe. Helium made up 25% of the stars. After being studied, the universe would have been burnt apart from being so hot and there would not be any oxygen and nitrogen created. The fusion inside of the stars created the elements. “Three helium nuclei fused to form carbon. Carbon fused with hydrogen to form nitrogen.” (Muller, 2010) Even then, the slower fusion was not enough to create heavier elements. There are suspicions that heavier elements were created in the fusion when stars exploded, which is called the supernova event. A majorty of the elements in the periodic table were created with the supernova event. (Muller 2010) Supernova explosions caused the elements to cool and then convert to dust after being brought into space. The debris that was left developed the planets in the Universe. The conditions were cool enough for water in the plants and that lead to the creation of life. (Muller, 2010)

The evidence to prove the Big Bang would be Hubble’s discovery. He discovered that the universes were expanding, and they were moving further apart from one another. There has been a theory stating that if the galaxies are flying apart, they were once closer together. Along the baryonic matter in the universe, there was also an enormous amount of helium. Helium was in the early universe before there were stars. The photographs of space made with the Hubble Space Telescope describes that galaxies in the early universe were smaller and in an irregular shape. The earlier universes would have been colliding with one another. This theory gives an advantage to what the early Universe was like, but it fails to explain the cosmic dynamite that caused the Big Bang. (Maran, 2017)

There is a misunderstanding as to why there is no communication throughout space with messengers going at the speed of light. Alan Guth considers inflation to be the reasoning. He believed that after a millisecond, the universe went through a growth spurt. (Maran, 2017) Researchers cannot observe the expansion of space that was caused by inflation. Scientists believe that inflation may have created universes beyond what has been seen. Inflation caused some parts of the universe to hold more matter and energy than other parts of the universe. (Maran, 2017)

The vacuum gives power to inflation that has particles and antiparticles that are regularly being created and destroyed. The vacuum can also force things further apart, unlike gravity that pushes objects closer together. Inflation may have caused the geometry of the universe to be flat. If the universe were to be flat, it would have to have critical density. If density is greater than critical density, it would cause the universe to collapse and if the density is less than the critical density, gravity would not be able to overpower the expansion and the universe will grow indefinitely. (Maran, 2017)

Dark energy is yet to be explained. The only explainable aspect of dark energy is the repulsive force. The expansion of the universe was slowed down because of gravity, but the matter was spread apart as the universe continued to grow. Dark energy caused the universe to expand faster as the gravity in the universe grew weaker. If the expansion of earth was slowing since the Big Bang, there would not be a massive distance between earth and the father away galaxy, with a shorter travel time for light. There is a significant amount of dark matter of 26.8% and dark energy of 68.3% in the universe. (Maran, 2017)

Because of the cosmic microwave background, scientists are able to calculate what happened in the first three microseconds in the Big Bang. (Muller, 2010) The Big Bang predicted the universe would be full of microwave radiation. The cosmic microwave background started when the universe was 379,000 years old. The light that is detected from the universe is not shifted in wavelength by the expansion of the universe as microwaves and far-infrared light. Nothing was hotter or colder and it had appeared to have a perfect temperature. The early universe was not smooth and had over dense and under dense places. Those dense places embody tiny seeds that could have clumped together to form galaxies. When measuring the temperature of the microwave background, hot and cold spots were found. Because of how small the temperature differences were, they were tremendously difficult to detect. Scientists looked to the cosmic microwave background to determine whether the universe was flat or not. A flat universe would have temperatures fluctuate a specific pattern. Scientists believe that the microwave background has this pattern and that the universe is flat. (Maran, 2017)

Time was nonexistent before the Big Bang. It was created after the elements and life were created. “In the relativity theory, space and time are treated as different dimensions in the space-time continuum.” (Muller, 2010) There is no such thing as time before the Big Bang because it did not exist before the Big Bang. Because of this, scientists may never be able to explain what caused the Big Bang. (Muller, 2010)

From the looks of it, galaxies will begin to move away from us at a greater speed than the speed of light. With that speed, the sun will diminish as their light will no longer reach the milky way. The sun will become a red giant, shed the outer layers and fade away as a white dwarf. The universe outside of their galaxy will go dark. (Maran, 2017)

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The Big Bang Theory Explanation. (2021, Mar 17). Retrieved March 24, 2023 , from

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