So basically the Big Bang Theory is the idea that something most likely a star with an incomprehensibly large mass supernovaed and created our universe and everything in it. It started with all the people living in times up to the 20th century who believed that the universe was ageless and infinite. But then Albert Einstein came along with his theory of relativity and completely changed peoples minds about how gravity works and Edwin Hubble found out that galaxies are actually moving away from one another.
Next in 1964, cosmic background radiation was discovered by accident, and with other evidence to support it, the Big Bang Theory became the accepted theory by scientists. Since then, new technology is giving us a better picture and more evidence of the big bang, like the Hubble Telescope. Now the basics of what actually occurred during the big bang we can only infer at, but here is what we think happened. So the big bang was not actually an explosion it was all space stretching everywhere all at once. The universe started very small, about the size of a marble and quickly expanded to the size of the football. It didn’t really expand into anything though because there is no boundary of limit to how far the universe can go and there is no outside the Universe. It is all there is.
In this space energy manifested itself in particles that existed for the tiniest slivers of time. In this environment matter and energy were so hot that they were practically the same stuff. Instead of one main powerful force it is refined under different rules like gravity and electromagnetic force. As the particles of energy are formed, these are called quarks, they bond together to form hadrons, but only some combinations are stable for any reasonable length of time. By the way all of this has happened in just one second. The universe now stretched out to about one billion kilometers has cooled down enough for some neutrons to decay into protons forming the first element, Hydrogen. As it continued to expand it continued to cool down and form new elements, and after about a million years clumps of hydrogen began to be pulled together and put under immense pressure to form the first stars. That is the Theory of the Big Bang.
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