It is absolutely unbelievable for one to hear a country like Canada is still challenged with racialization in the labor market despite the fact that it is a developed country. Many scholars have shown that racialization in the labor market is a global problem that is taking place in many countries in the world. What matters is the spread of racialization in the labor market of the respective country. In the last two years, the statistic has shown that racialization in Canadian workforce is steadily rising and it takes place in every province. There is a significant gap in terms of pay between men and women. Men are known to earn more than women under the same working condition and, sometimes, women are more educated than men but the pay is low. Women get low pay principally because of racial discrimination that has flooded vast part of Canada. Therefore, the racialization of the Canadian workforce should be abolished as it causes women to become poor and escalates gender pay disparity.
The role women play in a given nation like Canada can never be underestimated. It is a fact that the strides Canada has made in economic compass; women have played a vital role. Studying racialization of the Canadian workforce is important because racialization has negatively influenced working women. Working women in Canada have continued to be subjected in low earning compared to men despite their best education level. It most cases, women and other racialized group faced racial discrimination on daily basis. On the account, this topic will provide a better model of understanding keys issues, causes of racialization as well as measures put in place to address racialization in the labor market.
Key Issues, concepts and Debate
Armstrong & Hugh (2010) despite the fact the economy of Canada is doing well when analyzed from the global standpoint, recent studies show that gender pay interlude remains less the same that exert stifling problem in the Canada labor market. In 2017, the total earning of a woman summed up in light of yearly basis indicates that a full time working women in Canada takes home an average of 74.2 cents for every dollar that significantly deviates from men who are entitled to an average earning 87.9 cents for every dollar (The Globe and Mail Inc., 2017). This suggests that men earn more than the woman and work for long hours compared to women. Many scholars have shown that the gender pay disparity in Canada, for the last two years, is raising steadily thus a worrying trend that must be addressed. The gender pay gap has profoundly penetrated in every province in Canada and the variation is easily traced in major and attractive occupation or industries (Armstrong & Hugh, 2010). Although recent statistics depict that, for the last two decades, the education level of women has edged men in a significant way.
The Globe and Mail Inc. (2017) states that the rising gender pay disparity has costly the country dearly because it dramatically dropped from 19th place all the way to 35th in consonance to world economic forum. The world economic forum conventionally plays a pivotal role in ranking countries in the world using gender disparity criteria. The Canada’s drop in the global ranking has taken place for the last two years thus the global image is affected to some extent. The gender pay disparity is a serious problem that must be addressed because it can carry a long-term impact on the economic, social and political factors. When women are denied equal pay, it affects their mechanics of saving. The recent statistics also indicate that longevity in women is higher compared to men hence gender pay gap is likely to affect their life after attaining retirement age. With continued rising gender pay disparity in Canada, it is anticipated that women are likely to get demotivated in work place and, to the greater extent, quite employment (The Globe and Mail Inc., 2017). Other than women being confronted with stifling gender pay dissimilarity, women further have been caged in domestic violence. What is more, the government of Canada has performed well in the political representation of women; many citizens in Canada feel that the government is not implementing agile measures to abolish gender pay inconsistency. Convincingly, the current trend in gender pay variation in Canada is completely worrying and, at all cost, ought to be addressed for the sake of economy and global reputation.
Duggan (2012) and Shalla (2011) globalization Neoliberalism can be viewed as a wave that confronted the economic system of many countries in the world since 1970 and has continued to exist even in the contemporary. This wave has roots from Chile. The basic foundation of globalization neoliberalism is the fact that it advocates for the free market. A country should be able to pursue a trade with government restriction kept at a minimum. Therefore, the private sector plays in dictating the prices of good and service and, to a certain limit, the supply entering the country. A part from economic policies, globalization neoliberalism further embraces social reforms (Shalla, 2011). Racialization of Canadian workforce can be viewed in the context of globalization neoliberalism.
Arguably, many contemporary qualitative and quantitative studies portray that top six racialized group living in a vast part of Canada encompass south Asian, Chinese, African Canadian, Arab and West Asian, Filipino and Latin American (Block & Galabuzi, 2011). Despite the positive milestones Canada has made in economy, recent studies have revealed that racialization in persistent in the Canadian labor market. Racialized Canadian populations have been constantly discriminated in the sense that they have been denied a widened opportunity to get jobs with magnetizing salary. Even with the current stable economy after global recession of 2008 ended, the pay gulf in the space separating racialized and non-racialized Canadian is significant. What is more, the racialized men and women living in Canada perform a vital role in the labor market in terms of participation and yet, they only get jobs which are low paying, insecure and temporary (Block & Galabuzi, 2011).
In fact, the trend shows that racialized Canadian men earn far much less compared to non-racialized Canadian. Similarly, the non-racialized Canadian women take home better salary compared to racialized Canadian women. The gender pay gap in Canada is steadily soaring. On that account, the racialization of Canadian labor market based on the race and gender can be conceptualized in globalization neoliberalism. Men and women living in Canada are the vital sources of labor for the economy of Canada. Therefore, economic and social policies of the country should be articulated and masterminded in a manner consistent with diversity inclusion. Duggan (2012) neoliberalism is peradventure a global policy that has made it possible for Canada to transfer labor market from the public sector to private.
In general, Canada is a mixed economy because the market is not completely free trade. There are divergent government policies and regulation in Canada that attempts to control factors of production. Convincingly, racialization in Canadian workforce in rampant in the private sectors as most of them give jobs to people based on the race and gender thus a gap that must be addressed.
It is a verity that social stratification or inequality, an institutionalized entity, in terms of gender, race, sexuality, disability and national citizenship has played a fundamental role in underpinning or fueling racialization of the Canadian workforce. ILO (2017) social systems in Canada are crammed with unique differences, identities, and roles that can be used create an inequality among people as well as categories. The population of Canada is divided into different races that play a vital labor market. People use the concept of race to determine if a person will be paid more or less. If a person is a racialized group, he or she is likely to be paid less. In addition, the labor market of Canada is grouped into two pivotal groups known as men and women. In terms of pay, Men earn more than women employed with the same academic qualification and performing the same task in a given organization. This gender discrimination is embedded on the cultural perspective that repeatedly emphasizes the role of men and women in the social.
ILO (2017) many societies in Canada feel that women should be in the midst of looking for children and pursuing home daily chores and so, they are entitled to reduced resources, autonomy and making core decision. In 2017, social stratification has fostered sexual harassment. ILO(2017) it is reported that nearly quarter of the women in Canadian labor market in one way or another have been subjected to sexual harassment based on gender and race which is an explicit indication of racialization.
Due to anticipated stifling effects of racialization on women in labor market, the government has implemented various agile laws and policies to address the issue. First, Galabuzi (2009) Canadian bill of rights is understood to be the first federal law formed way back in 1960 that can be used to address the persistent problem of racialization of women in the workforce. This bill of right states that any Canadian citizen should be free from any form of discrimination in light of race, sex, a nation of origin as well as religion. Women who feel discriminated at work place can use the bill of rights to escalate the issue to the relevant legal entities.
In addition, Galabuzi (2009) the Parliament of Canada passed and implemented employment equity act has one of primary policy to fight racial inequality. The central goal of this act is to ensure equality in Canadian labor market so that disadvantaged groups such as women, aboriginal people, people confronted with the disability as well as minority groups get equal employment opportunities irrespective of the condition and status. The act compels all employers in Canada to proactively embrace ethical practices that promote equal employment opportunities as a way to erode racialization in the workforce.
Galabuzi (2009) the government of Canada enacted multiculturalism policy to tackle suffocating racialization in the workforce. Conceivably, this policy compels the citizen of Canada to use multiculturalism as a source of cultural heritage rather than evangelizing racialization in labor market. In addition, the government of Canada, in 1996, formed Canadian Race Relation Foundation (CRRF) as a mechanism to address racialization in workforce both at national and provincial level (Galabuzi, 2009). CRRF has been decorated by many scholars has one of the most powerful and dedicated organization that has managed to eliminate multiple incidences of racism and gender discrimination at workplaces.
The housing bubble that is currently taking place in Toronto is a perfect example of a racial discrimination against women. Arguably, Otchere (2017) Tem Maria, a professional originating from Nigeria, met racialized renters who discriminated her. Maria tried looking for a house in Toronto but she could not secure the house because she was a woman of color. In fact, she concluded that if one is a woman of color, getting a house in Toronto is a mountainous task. The current trend of the housing bubble in Toronto has played a vital role in fabricating what is known as landlord’s market that has deliberately racialized black and South Asian women. In the same vein, at the beginning of January 2017, a Facebook page owned and operated by Kijiji services posted an ad online instructing to block woman of color from securing houses (Otchere, 2017).
The research further showed that black single mothers and fathers always meet racial discrimination when hunting a new house in Toronto. The stifling housing discrimination entrenched in Canada has denied working women an opportunity to live where they want. Immigrant workers, women of Color, repeatedly undergo horrifying experience when looking for houses in Canada. Otchere (2017) Kentake, a Jamaican single mother, testified how she looked for a rental house in Toronto for four years without securing and pushed her to live in the neighborhood.
Although racialization in Canadian work force is viewed as a persistent problem for the last two years, there are different changes that can be put in place to facilitate racialized equality, improved pay, and benefits, protection from discrimination and decent working condition to liberate women from cages of racism and poverty. For a long period of time, women are known in Canada to devote their time pursuing tradition field like being cashier and secretary that have contributed for low pay in one way or another. Therefore, the government has established different program to encourage women to study a non-traditional field like the trade. Individual and society thinking about the role of women in the society ought to change. Goldring & Joly (2014) women are caged in racism and poverty in Canada because of cultural beliefs. Cultural belief exalts the role of men and reduces the role women in the same social setting. Therefore, cultural sensitivity programs can be put in place to educate people on the negative effects of racialization on Canadian workforce. Cultural sensibility is perchance changing individual and social thinking. Also, working hours in another factor that must change to end the persistent gender pay disparity in Canada. Most women in Canada have employed on part time basis due to home responsibilities that make them earn the little salary. On average, they work lesser hours in a week compared to men under the same job conditions.
Goldring & Joly (2014) women have to be motivated to start forming up a strong racialization movement in form of activism to push the government to end racism and poverty. It is so sad to learn that most people in Canada, a developed country, are aware racism is illegal but, they continue pursuing it. Women activism will force the government to implement various policies and regulation to erode racialization in work place.
This research paper has found out that racialization as a major malady challenging Canada in spite of stable economic growth. Under the same working condition, racialized women earn less compared to men. Globalization neoliberalism, a wave that started in 1970, advocating for the free market can be conceptualized at the standpoints of racism and gender pay gap in the gap. Social stratification has played a fundamental role fueling racialization in Canadian labor market. Some of the important government policies put in place to eliminate racism in labor place encompass Canadian bill of rights, employment equity act, multiculturalism policy and Canadian Race Relation Foundation. Housing discrimination witnessed in Toronto is a classic modern example of racism. Some of the changes that can be put in place to liberate women from racialization include society and individual thinking, working hours, traditional fields, women activism and cultural sensitivity.
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