Physical Education in Higher Education

Abstract

The purpose of this research paper is to discuss the importance of having physical education in higher education for students to be successful by having a mandatory PE courses. Physical education is a requirement of most K-12 programs, but by the time a student enters their first year of college it is no longer required. Students are more worried about grades, and the courses the students need to graduate, but the students forget their own health issues and the benefits of PE course can provide which students will be overwhelm and get health issues as young adults. This research paper wo;; explain the benefits and the need for a physical education requirement, the implication and contributions that the universities will impact if physical education classes are part of the curriculum. This research paper has taken other studies and research then selecting the importance of having courses in college for students. All the studies and research are showing the benefits of having a physical education program required for college students.

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Introduction

Is physical education courses valuable in college curriculum? There are many studies that suggest that physical education can improve the well being of a young adult in college. Adams, Graves and Adams (2006) suggest that higher education curriculum offers a valuable opportunity for improving the level of health-related physical fitness knowledge of students and providing them support to more successfully develop lifestyle wellness behaviors, including exercise. In the early 1920s, all U.S. college students was required to take physical education and exercise requirements; today that number is at an all time low of 39 percent.

The research shows the benefit of this in the curriculum for college students and that all young adults should be informed but also be active during this stressful time in their education career. The researcher in this paper has also included the implication and contribution for the PE in higher education that can benefit students in college. The curriculum that involve knowledge and physical activity can keep young adults healthy and safe during the college years. HRF (health related fitness) levels influence not only health conditions, but also productivity, workday loss, mood, and performance but since college students are the future workforce, it is important to ensure that they have a sound health condition to be productive (Liu, J., Shangguan, R., Keating, X. D., Leitner, J., & Wu, Y. 2017).

It is found that PE programs will help students improve internally (feeling good with themselves) and externally (fit and fighting obesity) for students that attend college. This type of course can promote not only an improved understanding of concepts such as energy balance and proper nutrition, but also the characteristics and practices of optimal health, thereby aiding students in exerting healthful behavior change (Williams, S. E., Greene, L., Satinsky, S., & Neuberger, J. 2016). The PE curriculum is valuable for college and should be a mandatory. Physical education course mandatory to assure students are being healthy and active throughout the students stayed at the university.

Higher education is believed to have the potential to require to recommend students to master the knowledge and skills needed to establish a healthy lifestyle (Masksymchuk, I., Maksymchuk, B., Frytsiuk, V., Matviichuk, T., Demchenko, I., Babii, I., Savchuk, I. (2018). Many young adults will increase in physical health benefits of regular moderate physical activity and exercise are numerous including a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, osteoporosis (a condition in which bones become weak and brittle), and early mortality, as well as improved weight management, performance, stamina, and quality of life (Blair et al., 1996; Blair, Kohl, Barlow, Paffenbarger, & Gibbons, 1989; Blair et al., 1995; Calfas et al., 2000; Leslie et al., 2001; Paffenbarger, Hyde, Wing, & Hsieh, 1986; Sailors et al., 2010; HHS, 1996, 2000, 2008, 2010). Exercise is also associated with improving other aspects of health including psychological, intellectual, and social dimensions (Wankel & Bonnie, 1990; Warburton, Crystal, & Bredin, 2006). In fact, young college and university adults may stand to benefit the most, given their transitional stage of growth and development as they embark on their independent lives (Williams, S. E., Greene, J. L., Fry, A., Neuberger, J., & Satinsky, S. (2018).

Literature Review

The purpose of this research was to determine whether university students who participated in conceptually based physical education (CPE) would achieve greater positive improvements in their physical fitness level, compared to students in traditional activity- and skills-based physical education (ASPE). Method: This was a pilot study based on an experimental (Williams, S. E., Greene, J. L., Fry, A., Neuberger, J., & Satinsky, S. 2018).

The results of the studies prove to all be beneficial for physical education programs. Most of each research shows that there was a higher outcome when participants were involved with the studies from physical activity than the participants that were not involved. A conceptual physical education course and college freshmenr’s health-related fitness and other studies in this paper showed great outcomes and proven that having knowledge with healthy lifestyles and being physical activity can improve a student lifestyle and success academically.

Benefits

In one of the research studies the researchers examined the effect of a new physical education program that aimed at improving social skills for new university students. There was an experimental group and two control groups. The social skills is for companionship, self control, self disclosure, and adaptation. Students social skills increased after the new PE program. Specifically, the researchers found that after PE lessons, it was easier for students to engage in social contact with others, independently problem-solve, and introduced themselves to others (Wang, X., & Sugiyama, Y. 2014). Students were more likely to apologize immediately after they made mistakes. In contrast, the control group showed almost no change. The researchers suggest that the new PE program was effective in improving social skills. PE provides an opportunity to improve students social development.

In the research with Williams, Greene, Fry, Neuberger, and Satinsky it was found that the physical health benefits of regular moderate physical activity and exercise are numerous including a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, osteoporosis (a condition in which bones become weak and brittle), and early mortality, as well as improved weight management, performance, stamina, and quality of life, the study is to prove the benefits of the health knowledge and physical activity (Blair et al., 1996; Blair, Kohl, Barlow, Paffenbarger, & Gibbons, 1989; Blair et al., 1995; Calfas et al., 2000; Leslie et al., 2001; Paffenbarger, Hyde, Wing, & Hsieh, 1986; Sailors et al., 2010; HHS, 1996, 2000, 2008, 201).

Implications and Contributions

The researchers, Liu, Shangguan, Keating, Leitner, and Wu discuss the importance of physical education course should be recommended as a mandatory for college students. One of the statements the researchers all discuss is that physical education course instructors should provide students with highly individualized interventions while taking into considerations of students background such as sex, majors, previous lifestyles and HRF (health related fitness) levels. Implementing knowledge based lectures alone may not be sufficient to enhance HRF levels. Assignments and activities that lead to behavior changes such as goal setting, PA planning, and PA assessment may be utilized to help students enhance or maintain HRF levels (Liu, J., Shangguan, R., Keating, X. D., Leitner, J., & Wu, Y. (2017)).

In higher education it will further prevent adulthood obesity by educating and promoting a healthy lifestyle for students. Considering the design and setting in which the PE course will be conduct to many other large universities in US, it is likely that many universities could achieve the above goal by offering CPE (conceptual physical education) courses credit as a degree requirement. The highly individualized interventions in CPE courses are essential in enhancing college freshmenr’s health related fitness levels and will be successful.

Methodology

The researcher methodology will be collecting surveys and questionnaires into the university of Kean students. The study will be two different groups, athletic students and normal non athletic students. The athletic students will have to be students who are into physical activity and health conditions (students who go to the gym 3x/week, students who play sports, weight training, conditioning, and any other students into physical activity or knowledge or nutrition and health).

The study will contain their GPA, active on school campus, and social skills with other students for both different groups of the research. Another contribute to determine the if physical education will benefit the higher education to improve college studentr’s life is having 10 students who is physically activity and knowledge of health and nutrition (five female and five male students) and the other 10 students who is not physical academic (five female and five male students) in total 20 subjects. They both will be around the ages of 18 to 26. The end of the research we will compare and contrast the results, or being successful in both physical activity and health is beneficial. If the research wants to advance in study, she will collect both groups and do studies for attention span, stress, and other components that can benefit a student successfully in college other than academically.

Conclusion

There is more needed research to determine all the benefits for every student will be able to receive physical education but it is believed that PE courses should be mandatory for all college students. In the research it is proven that physical education courses are beneficial for the young adults and will help the students to become successful later in life as well. College is a stressful place and can cause lots of issues with students, PE will become the outlet and help relieved students from health diseases, obesity, and stress instead of making it worse for the students.

Students who work and also go to school might have the problem of having a healthy nutrition and a healthy physical activity, those students are usually the ones struggling the most with this issue. These courses will remind them to importance of their body and health. These courses can also informed the students on their sexual activity for a protective way of intercourse and interactions with other students or other young adults. Physical education is very important for college students as much as it is for K-12 students.

References

  1. Allar, I., Baek, J.-H., & Taliaferro, A. (2014). Addressing Inclusion in Higher Education Physical Activity Programs. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 85(9), 36“41. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=99077596&site=ehost-live
  2. Bjerke, W. (2013). Health and Fitness Courses in Higher Education: A Historical Perspective and Contemporary Approach. Physical Educator, 70(4), 337“358. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=98591093&site=ehost-live
  3. Keating, X. D., Wallace, J., Schafer, J., OConnor, M., Shangguan, R., & Guan, J. (2012). Analyses of Higher Education Conceptual Physical Education Courses. ICHPER — SD Journal of Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance, 7(2), 38“44. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=84960344&site=ehost-live
  4. Liu, J., Shangguan, R., Keating, X. D., Leitner, J., & Wu, Y. (2017). A conceptual physical education course and college freshmenr’s health-related fitness. Health Education (0965-4283), 117(1), 53“68. https://doi-org.kean.idm.oclc.org/10.1108/HE-01-2016-0002
  5. Maciulevien—, E., & Gedvilien—, J. (2014). Subjective Perception of the Realities of Modern Physical Education Classes among Physical Education Teachers and Students in Higher Grades. Baltic Journal of Sport & Health Sciences, 95(4), 9“15. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=102132948&site=ehost-live
  6. Maksymchuk, I., Maksymchuk, B., Frytsiuk, V., Matviichuk, T., Demchenko, I., Babii, I., Savchuk, I. (2018). Developing pedagogical mastery of future physical education teachers in higher education institutions. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 18(2), 810“815. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=130654900&site=ehost-live
  7. Wang, X., & Sugiyama, Y. (2014). Enhancing Social Skills Through College Physical Education. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 14(2), 158“163. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true AuthType=cookie,ip,url,cpid&custid=keaninf&db=s3h&AN=99030636&site=ehost-live&scope=site
  8. Williams, S. E., Greene, J. L., Fry, A., Neuberger, J., & Satinsky, S. (2018). A Study of Conceptually Based Physical Education in Higher Education. Physical Educator, 75(3), 471“497. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=130439574&site=ehost-live
  9. Adams, T. M., II, Graves, M. M., & Adams, H. J. (2006). The effectiveness of a university level conceptually-based healthrelated fitness course on health-related fitness knowledge. Physical Educator, 63, 104“112.
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  13. Leslie, E., Sparling, P. B., & Owen, N. (2001). University campus settings and the promotion of physical activity in young adults: Lessons from research in Australia and the USA. Health Education, 101, 116“125. https://doi.org/10.1108/09654280110387880
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  15. Sailors, M. H., Jackson, A. S., McFarlin, B. K., Turpin, I., Ellis, K. J., Foreyt, J. P., . . . Bray, M. S. (2010). Exposing college students to exercise: The training interventions and genetics of exercise response (TIGER) study. Journal of American College Health, 59(1), 13“20. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2010.483712
  16. Williams, S. E., Greene, L., Satinsky, S., & Neuberger, J. (2016). Content Analysis of Conceptually Based Physical Education in Southeastern United States Universities and Colleges. Physical Educator, 73(4), 671“688. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=119741598&site=ehost-live
  17. 7 Tips for Including Kids with Autism in Physical Education | Inclusion Lab. (2018). Retrieved from https://blog.brookespublishing.com/7-tips-for-including-kids-with-autism-in-physical-education/
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Physical Education In Higher Education. (2019, Jun 13). Retrieved May 22, 2022 , from
https://studydriver.com/physical-education-in-higher-education/

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