During the 18th century, a new movement brushed through Europe and created a primitive change in politics, science, and art. The Age of Enlightenment was partially a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, as the world witnessed the importance of technological innovation for the growth of humankind. Neoclassicism and Romanticism literature and arts affected the present world. Neoclassicism was the foundation of romanticism especially in the influence either in literature, arts and of their genres.
Neoclassical and Romanticism both developed from Greece and Rome in antiquity. This age of reason and enlightened thinking dominated Europe, creating two important eras in philosophy and visual art. Neoclassicism and Romanticism competed side by side, bringing creatives together to express emotion as well as a love for the classics of Greece and Rome.
While Neoclassical art was directed towards to classical Greco-Roman art, the Romantic era placed the emphasis on capturing emotions like fear and horror in visual form. The 15th-century architect Leon Battista Alberti believed in Classicism defined beauty in architecture as the harmony and concord of all the parts achieved by following well-founded rules and resulting in a unity such that nothing could be added or taken away or altered except for the worse.
In paintings, artists were to choose subjects that glorified man, use characters suited to the actions being represented, and emulate the appearance of actions in the natural world. Often considered the direct opposite of the Romantic era, Neoclassical art had a huge grip on Europe for many years. At the peak of its philosophy, Neoclassicism revived the “true style” of classical art from Ancient Greece and Rome. Another example is painter Jacques-Louis, David made this style famous through the token painting of the Oath of the Horatii. It stressed the importance of love and sacrifice for oner’s country.
The examples of antiquity in the Renaissance in Rome provided the guidelines of Classicism for the next two centuries in Italy. In the 17th-century France mocked those examples, along with Albertir’s theories, guided the principal French artists to a real Classicism.
Nicolas Poussin and Francois Mansart were important were key figures in showing the real Classicism in architecture and paintings. The main characteristics of Neoclassical paintings were organizing the composition around symbolic numbers, and telling heroic stories of moral civics. Romantics rejected the rational ways of Neoclassical artists, and held their love of individual expression over the restraints of traditional customs. Romanticism and Neoclassicism both had their strengths and contributed greatly to the present world.
English painters such as Sir Joshua Reynolds provided lessons in Renaissance Classicism that dominated a similar span of English and American painting. By the middle of the 18th century, Classicism was being attacked from two directions. The authoritative equation of Classicism and beauty was challenged by longings for the sublime, so that romantic fantasies, suggestive allusions, and bizarre inventions came to be more highly valued than classicist clarity and dignity. Likewise, the accepted superiority of Roman antiquity was being challenged by supporters of Greece. The historian of ancient art Johann Winckelmann, for example, saw in Greek sculpture a noble simplicity and quiet grandeur and admonished artists to imitate nature by imitating the Greeks, for only they have revealed manr’s greatness”a classicist doctrine translated from Rome to Greece. In sculpture this program was followed particularly by Antonio Canova. In painting, on the other hand, Jacques-Louis David reestablished the formal standards of Raphael and of Augustan Rome and turned Classicism into a tool that served the new exhortative and eulogizing subjects painters were called on to render. Restraint, grandeur, and simplicity, along with precise depiction and close congruence of clear form and noble content, continued to constitute the Classicism in many of the works of such later artists as Pablo Picasso, Aristide Maillol, and Henry Moore.
After the mid-18th century, Classicism in architecture became connected with rationalism. Various Neoclassicisms were spawned by reverence for Greek, Roman, or Renaissance models. By the early 20th century, classicistic demands for harmony, proportion, and the congruence of parts were being applied to new technology to give order to many styles. The architects Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe exemplified two different ways of adapting Classical stylistic characteristics to modern problems and materials. Periods of Classicism in literature and music have generally coincided with the Classical periods in the visual arts. In literature, for instance, the first major revival of Classicism also occurred during the Renaissance, when Ciceror’s prose was especially imitated. France in the 17th century developed a rich and diversified Classicism in literature, as it had also in the visual arts. The dramatists Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine, together with the philosophers Blaise Pascal and Rene Descartes, were particularly important. In England, Classicism in literature arose later than in France and reached its zenith in the 18th-century writings of John Dryden and Alexander Pope. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and Friedrich Schiller were major figures in the German Classical literary movement. In the early 20th century, T.S. Eliot and proponents of the New Criticism were sometimes considered classicists because of their emphasis on form and discipline.
In music, the great Classical period arose in the late 18th century and was dominated by composers of the German-speaking area of Europe: Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Christoph Gluck, and the young Ludwig van Beethoven. Their music is polished, refined, and melodic. In their era, instrumental music became more important than vocal music for the first time in history. Intense interest in such music and in regularized Classical form led to the standardization of symphony orchestras, chamber ensembles, pianos, and various compositional forms.
The idea of the artist as a genius, emotionally connected and originality was turned against by the radical world.
William Blake was an exception to this, he practiced a more visionary art, the favored landscape of English painters. Hearing the words “Romantic art,” one might think of love and kindness, but that is not usually true to William Blake.To him, it simply infers emotional art. Romantic art hit the turn of the century, and had a large number of participants for the next couple of years. Romantic art continued to focus on feelings and emotions. The end of the Romantic era is marked in some areas by a new style of Realism, which affected literature, especially the novel and drama, painting, and even music, through Verismo opera. The early period of the Romantic Era was a time of war, with the French Revolution (1789-1799) followed by the Napoleonic Wars until 1815. It means being a staunch individualist, believing in the rights of other individuals, and expressing deep, intense, and often uplifting emotions like Beethoven (whose Fifth Symphony marked the beginning of the Romantic era in music). During the Romantic era, an affectionate and sentimentalized portrait of the Middle Ages emerged that was usually no more accurate than the polemical characterizations of Enlightenment writers. This in turn led historians such as Alfred Einstein to extend the musical ” Romantic Era ” throughout the 19th century and into the first decade of the 20th. simple, memorable way to imagine the Romantic era: an age of “heroic individuals” whose styles and subjects symbolized the power of the human will or spirit in shaping history and art.
The most known Romantic arts were nothing but three novels: The Hunchback of Notre-Dame and Les Miserables, both by the French writer Victor Hugo, and Frankenstein, by 18-year-old British writer Mary Shelley. The originality influenced by Romanticism, classical art was in a wide spectrum, and challenged the Romantic idea of creation from nothingness. Beyond technique, the Romantics also went against the political art of the Neoclassical era with more devout are with displays of intense emotion.
Art of this period also depicted the romantic ideal of nationalism, but for reasons of length, we will focus on landscapes in this post. In contrast to the social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, and tended to believe connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy. Many Romantic ideas about the nature and purpose of art, remained important for later generations, and often underlie modern views, despite opposition from theorists. Translator and prominent Romantic August Wilhelm Schlegel argued that the most power of human nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite directions. The Romantic era ended by giving new styles of painting and music.
Though different in style, the eras of Neoclassical and Romantic art both became embedded in Europe’s history. Neoclassicism was the foundation of romanticism especially in the influence either in literature, arts and of their genres.
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