Marx has ranked among most influential political scholars of nineteenth and twentieth centuries. he generated an important intellectual and cultural movement, known as Marxism; and a worldwide political association under the name of communism, the two of which followed Marx’s lead by engendering the tenants of class struggle, historical materialism and the inherent important contradictions of industrial capital. For this reason, his ideas are well known.
Karl Marx was born in 1818 in Trier, in the Rhineland, then part of Prussia. Though he came from a long line of rabbis. Mark’s father was an attorney with liberal views who left Judaism and became a Christian scientist for social reasons. Before becoming a student of law, theology, and philosophy at the University of Berlin Marx attended the University of Bonn briefly. He had been a member of poet’s club in At Bonn, this counted many political radicals as members.
Then he joined a doctor club whose works he would later adapt for his teachings on historical materialism, by associating with Young Hegelians. Marx has written many poems and fictions, a number of love poems are written by him for his girlfriend Jenny von Westphalen, and are also available to us. Marx and Jenny met with each other when they are children, courted as teenagers, married after completing their studies and had seven children and with each other for ages.
Karl Marx work offers a significant, powerful assessment of modernity on several fronts. He is best known for his passionate attack on capitalism but he also presents us with serious philosophic and cultural arguments. Marx’s work is generally divided into two periods; the more philosophical, idealist, early Marx and the more mature, scientific, and materialistic Marx. Marx claims that philosophy is based on its revolutionary and practical character.
Marx was formed by Hegel’s writings, and accordingly most of his early work is an attempt to understand the conclusions and deficiency of Hegel’s thought. Hegel himself respected Christianity as a partial representation of the whole truth. Marx , considered himself follower of the German left, or Young Hegelian, and a group included David Strauss, Bruno Bauer, Ludwig Feuerbach and Max Stirner. These men were foundational they insisted that Christianity was an expression of human disaffection and needed to be destroyed in order to make way for a new, humanistic devotion. Feuerbach explained that the attributes of god are actually human aspect; mankind, disaffected from his true self, experiences that separating self as an cruel power he is forced to worship. According to Marx exposing human roots of religion has no effect if one wishes to change man’s relationship to the spritual; what must be done is to destroy the material conditions that makes religious division necessary.
Marx indicates his turn to materialism in THE HOLY FAMILY On Jewish Question,Theses on Feuerbach, and especially A Contribution to the appraisal of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. It is important to note that Marx’s political understanding introduce his materialism. He believed in the power, necessity of socialism before he worked out the logic of its origin. ON THE JEWISH QUESTION contains a rare instance of Marx’s battle with the philosophy of natural right and the formal concept of freedom in the so-called bourgeois democracies. Whereas, natural rights theorists plea to have allowed for religious and personal freedom in the so called bourgeois democracies. While natural rights theorists claim to have allowed for religious and personal freedoms in domain of civil society, Marx claims that this conception divides the human being from himself, giving him neither a real public nor a real private existence.men have formal rights and equality, but their rights have no power, and we are diverse in our conditions. Freedom of religion and privacy of conscience are believed by the economic conditions which are the real basis of awareness.
Historical materialism is Marx’s central philosophic attitude. It is cleared in The German Ideology and Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. In recent decades there has been a rise of interest in this period of Marx’s thought. Even many of his later commercial and scientific disputes have been refuted hypothetically, analytically, and politically, the philosophic humanism that underlies them still has great demand for many intellectuals. The concept of historical heterodoxy holds that the power of human historical advancement is the economic disagreement between various social classes.
It takes for acknowledged Hegel’s declaration that history is a meaningful process that works progressively toward its end in the midst of probably chaotic human events, but argues that Hegel takes to be essential moments in the history are merely the epiphenomena of the material condition that created them. Marx wrote that all human history is the history of class struggle.Marx explains that all of human history can be understood by changes in the mode of production, or the organize relation of human beings to the products of their labor. Marx argues that by separating the worker from the product of his labor, the system of industrial capital not only alienates the worker from himself, but from all other human beings: the worker who has to sell his labor as a commodity and does not enjoy the product of his labor is not really human.
There are four stages in human history: tribal, communal, feudal, and bourgeois, or capitalist. In each successive stage there is a substantive advancement and multiplication of human productive forces but also an increased degree of exploitation, until mankind reaches a threshold condition of abundance produced by technology that is sufficient to provide for all human needs. That condition will eventually force the mass of mankind, with no property but its own labor, to overthrow the few remaining capitalists and abolish private property. This communism is the end of class struggle and therefore the end of class struggle and therefore the end of history or the final plane of human economic relations.
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