Leadership and Change Management
In the current milieu change occurs swiftly which directly influenced over the global financial crisis, global popularity and globalization do create diverse innovative trends and patterns in the competitive market to which organizations should adopt and adjust rapidly in order to effectively compete. Hence, less ability to adjust for changes would impact towards the organization’s competitiveness in front of the competitors. Therefore the management of ‘change’ on organizational aspect should be commenced cautiously; in order to generate revenue to organizations. For instance; automobile brands as Ford, Chrysler, etc in United States were not willing for market changes, which led on Japanese brands as Toyota, etc to capture the competitive market, clearly illustrates the significances on changes. Moreover the key element towards the rapid global change process dwells due to globalization. The term globalization determines the ‘integration of markets and economics.” Thus diverse scholars have emphasized their omniscient point on globalization. As to Professor C.K. Prahalad; Globalization is good as well it’s bad and Thomas Firedman elaborated that globalization is the core-reason to make the world-flat, though the novel ‘The World Is Flat’ by Thomas Friedman, it’s clearly elaborated that the world has become flat due to the effect of the ten key-flatteners; supply-chain, outsourcing, off-shoring, when Netscape went public et-al. Moreover scholars as Dr. Noreena Hertz and Joseph Stiglits’s view point on globalization, it is visible that globalization has impacted the world on the two aspects of ‘good’ and ‘bad,’ which has resulted the immense-effect of organizational changes. Nevertheless the model “leadership and change management” hubs over the intricate features of leadership; in diverse cultures, resourcefulness, modernization and impending of leadership skills; in midst of effectual leadership tactics and change-perceptions were hyperbole. The ‘theory E and O’ signifies the levers of managing strategic changes in an organization comprehensively; though organizational management’s confrontations on organizational changes are structured on trepidation on monetary, competence, uncertainty, figurative, etc. However there are numerous processes on conquering resistance to change through scrutinizing the collisions, identification of matters. Therefore organizational managers and leaders are regularly confronted on ‘discovering and minding latest-trails, thus “attribute” and “skills” are the key elements that leaders and managers should compel on achieving organizational objectives. Table of Contents Executive Summary 1Introduction 1.1Scope of the assignment 1.2Introduction to BBC 1.2.1BBC’s mission and vision 2The implementation of the Change Management Processes at BBC 2.1The recognition of need for change 3The role of leaders and managers in the change process 3.1Mr. John Birt’s tactic on change at BBC 4Conclusion References List of Diagrams Figure 1: BBC mission and vision, Source: BBC Annual Report (2012-13), Pg. 05
Fundamentally the core-endeavor of the assignment is to justify “the leadership and change management practices” of “BBC’s implementation of an economic strategy” is elaborated on the aspects of BBC’s organizational culture, implementation of change, role of leaders and managers, the commencement procedure, antagonisms of failures and accomplishments. Mostly the “extensive series of technological-changes, political ambiance towards BBC and the augmentation of key players” and the key changes that the BBC management had to undergo during the 1992-2000 periods were thoroughly elaborated. Thereby the key argument of the assignment is to emphasizes the changes which BBC had to endure on the aspects of sustain in the British competitive environment is emphasized. Thereby the key argument of the assignment is to emphasizes the changes which BBC had to undergo on the aspects of business goals/objectives, management, structuring procedures, financial perspective, political-perspective, thus the leadership and change management practices which were commenced by BBC were diction through the use of theories of ‘Lewin’s Change Management model, Mckinsey 7-S model, Kotter’s 8 step model et-al within the assignment.
The narration of “British Broadcasting Corporation” (BBC) drives for more than ninety two years backward, which was formed in the 1922 by the late Mr. John Reith in the hearth of United Kingdom at the Broadcasting House London. Fundamentally BBC is in the industry of ‘communal overhaul broadcasting’ which delivers service to the mass-market, through utilizing 40 languages, are exploited through the three key focal materials of; television, radio and online which swathes the key areas of “Television” programmes as; BBC archives, natural history unit, Children BBC, BBC ALBA etc, “BBC News cluster” which presents latest details about recent events regionally, nationally and internationally, “BBC Radio” which delivers music series, episodes as BBC Proms, BBC I & IXtra, BBC Asian Network, BBC Philharmonic, etc, “BBC Future Media” which convey new technological features as red Button and BBC online. (Annual Report 2012-13) Currently the organization is consisted within six major-plants in Belfast, Cardiff, Salford Quays, Bristol, Glasgow and Birmingham thus the current company-size of employees dwells around 23,000 which proudly bears the title as the ‘globes oldest public broadcaster and the prime anchor of the globes leading employees in number. Additionally BBC is segmented as a ‘public-service presenter,’ conversely BBC is maneuvered by the Royal Charter and an accord through the Home Secretary. Accordingly the total turnover of revenue in the fiscal year 2012-13 was A£5.102 billion while BBC’s prime aim is to accelerate in phrase of program “superiority, idiosyncratic, worth for customer capital, dole-out every audience, ingenuousness and intelligibility.” BBC is design of providing long term growth with better innovations through the aid of ‘Atos’ technology processers and Research and Development has lead the company towards continuous improvement under different innovations. For instance: In 2007 July, BBC utilized the DRM and peer-to-peer technology which hyperbole of the ability to cater past details through television and radio, of the past week for off-line exploit over a months-time. Nevertheless, BBC is highly concern on customer satisfaction, since BBC evaluation the daily recital on services through identifying and analyzing whether customers (audience) enjoys and appreciate BBC programmes, thus it would be justified the following way;
Figure 1: BBC mission and vision, Source: BBC Annual Report (2012-13), Pg. 05 Moreover, BBC is embedded on diverse features on the aspect delivering superior service to ‘audiences and employees’ through allowing on constructing translucent and fair decision among employees (governance) which signifies the conceptual, interpersonal and technical skills which BBC managers and leaders are concerned. Thus BBC produces miscellaneous content to individuals at all age-generations and the ability to appreciate and identify audiences’ needs and wants through approaching audiences through research and councils, emphasizes the core competencies of BBC in the midst of the competitors.
Fundamentally, the need of change was emerged at BBC in the early 1980, during the epoch continued achievements at the point where BBC was born as the globes escorting communal broadcaster, it instigated of been satisfied in the competitive business arena. In the late eras BBC was recognized as the finest broadcaster in the competitive industry and the mode BBC subsidized through the aid of obligatory ‘warrant-fee’ hyperbole the image that BBC is monetarily sheltered. Through positive intentions on the minds of BBC management the contemplation towards the business was lessen, but at the situation which the climax period was dawn to BBC due to the continuous changes in the world; BBC had to undergo diverse arrays of imperative predicaments which comprised;
Basically “organizational managers” determines as a methodical structure of acquaintance; pedestal on broad standards, perceptions, hypothesis and procedures inconsistent in tenures of trade activities in organizations. While “organizational leaders” demonstrates the aptitude to instigate self-assurance and sustain amongst individuals who required necessitates accomplishing managerial aspirations. For example; late CEO of Nawaloka Group, Mr. Dharmadasa is a legendary business leader in the Sri Lankan history. Additionally the management styles may vary according to the nature of the country as well. Since in Poland the management mode relies over the business nature and the size of the organization, whereas American managers are much more hierarchically managed clearly illuminate the different approaches of managements around the world. According to Andre Laurent’s (1978) discernment to Fayol’s model of organization as a pyramid of individuals with both personal power and formal rules as principles of coordination the survey which was commenced by Laurent exhibited that French managers were against the concept of organizational employees could report to two different bosses, whereas Swedish and U.S. managers has elaborated less hesitations towards the above concept could be elaborated as the cross-cultural managerial and leadership approaches. Consequently, to the BBC’s situation “Mr. John Birt” could be illustrated as a key-leader over the change management process. Mr. Birt was appointed as the BBC Director General in 1992 and at that-time Mr. Birt emphasized BBC’s organizational culture as a ‘manner of imperialism’ which embalmed a negative aspect to the organization and the lessen employment utilization and many more down-falls were pin-pointed by Mr. Birt which the thought of change-management was overwhelmed on Mr. Birt. Hence Mr. Birt introduced essential-modifications to BBC promptly, on the aspect of surviving in the competitive business arena, since the impacts from competitors, technological and political aspects frankly juxtaposition BBC in the broadcasting industry.
On the aspect of surviving in the broadcasting industry Mr. John Birt pioneered a series of sturdy changes. The first change which was commenced by Mr. Birt was to set a proper mission as ‘to make BBC the finest coped business in the public segment’ and the program quality and standard was embedded as the core-value of BBC. Hence the period Mr. Birt was allotted; it was unfeasible on resolving the situation of the total amount that the organization has to bear on producing a TV/radio program or else to exploit an own-studio of BBC. Since the organization had to face a financial crisis at the beginning of the implementation. Thereby it is evident that Mr. Birt’s approach of ‘transformational change’ through the establishment of the new mission to the organization. Since, Mr. Birt was concerned on formulating BBC as a highly efficient organization. Therefore Mr. Birt commenced a strategic approach known as the ‘product choice’ tactical change which constructed an interior advertises which altered the further supremacy on BBC program developers to directors and accountants through the utilization of the Kurt Lewin’s (1950) change management model. The three key elementary steps of unfreeze, transition and refreeze approaches were visible on the above illustrated instances. Since Mr. Birt methodically unfreeze the program-developers mind and molded them into positions as managers and accountants through the applicable modes and refreeze the former program-developers as managers. Through the exercise of the ‘producer choice’ strategic approach, BBC’s units befallen into expenditure-axis which were to ‘break-even,’ hence BBC manufacturers utilized to diminish the total expenditure on developing TV, Radio programs through the subordinate of the peripheral suppliers. For instances, a situation as BBC may endow with higher expenditure effectual overhaul rather than internal sources. Furthermore, Mr. Birt’s leadership approach on change of apex-down coerced on innovative organizational structures and technological systems within BBC which lacerated the expenditure on developing diverse broadcasting programs, which was a significant potency towards the BBC’s operation. However, Mr. Birt’s change towards BBC escorted on employee redundant of more than 10,000 created a black-image to the organization, thus the collision which the changes impacted not only to employees but to employees family members and to their life-styles. Thus following facts could be included as the negative impacts which occurred due to changes; The direct collision to BBC employees under the cultural reinforcement, since different cultured employees from different regions in the world, different races, religions and family backgrounds were recruited and the decision making ability towards organization’s problem/issues were decentralized as earlier the decision making ability was centralized to the strategic level of the organization et al facts could be elaborated as the opposition which occurred due to the completion of the economic strategy by Mr. Birt.
Sally Wehmeier, Colin Mclntosh, Joanna Turnbull, 2005, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 7th edition, Oxford University Press. Svend Hollensen, Essentials of Global Marketing: Johanson and Vahlne (1990), The Uppsala International Model, British Library Cataloguing-in-publication data. Trading Economy, 2014, India total disposable personal income, [Online] available https://www.tradingeconomics.com/india/disposable-personal-income Richard Dobbs, Sven Smit, James Manyika, Jonathan Woetzel & Yaw Agyenim- Boateng, Urban world: The shifting global business landscape, October 2013, McKinsey Global Institute, [online], Available; www.mckinsey.com/mgi
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