Gives the manager as much authority as possible. It does not include the other members of the organization in the decision-making; members are expected to obey all the orders from their managers without questions. This style has structured sets of incentives and punishments. This type hinders the input from the members of the organization arising from a big barrier between the management and its employees. However, this style maybe used and effective into intensive supervision provided through organized and structured instructions; this leads to minimal errors from the employees because there are detailed set of instructions to follow and they are afraid to make mistakes because of the respective punishments. Despite the identified effectiveness, it may sooner result to lower morale from the employees because they work with fear and no opinion; in return high turnover of absenteeism and resignation.
Bureaucratic Also known as management by the book; everything is done according to policies. It is found to be effective when an employee needs to perform daily tasks repeatedly; safety or security training conducted; and employees that perform tasks that require handling cash. This is good for untrained staff members that are just new to their position in the company. However, like autocratic leadership style it may soon lead employee to lose interest in their jobs.
Also known as participative encourages members of the organization to be part of the decision-making; they are well informed about everything that will affect their work and problem solving responsibilities. It is found to produce a high quality and quantity of work for a long period; since employees have trust among themselves, there is cooperation, high morale, and team spirit. There is motivation to grow and be promoted. However, this is only successful when employees are highly skilled and experienced and are well motivated to work in a group. Despite the effectiveness of this style, not all organization could apply this since there is not enough time to get every members’ opinion and input. (Johannsen, March 9, 2014)
Also known as hands-off style since the management provides little to no direction to its members. The employees have power and authority to determine their goals, make their own decisions, and solve their problems as a group. This may only be implemented if all staff members are highly skilled, educated, and experienced in their areas. They must also be expert and trustworthy, that can manage to work without supervision. However, if members do not fit these categories, they may not have a very effective output hat may lead to the organization’s failure.
Organizational Theory are concepts that tried to explain how an individual might react in different organizational arrangements; it aims to effectively manage the group of people according to what happened in the past and what may possibly happen in the future. Meanwhile, management practices is to allocate the organizations’ optimum funds to be able to accomplish its objectives in the most effective and practical means possible. Because of the rapid changes and challenges happening such as globalization, intense competition, ethics and social responsibility, and diversity management must be able to evaluate the best theory to apply in their organization. One theory is the Classical Management Theory that represents a combination of scientific management, bureaucratic and administrative theory. However, this theory was found to be rigid and mechanistic. The limitations of classical organization theory rapidly became recognizable and its major deficiency was that it only tried to explain peoples’ incentive to work strictly as a function of economic reward. Next is Neoclassical Organization Theory, it explains that human relations movement evolved as a reaction to the tough, authoritarian structure of classical theory. It addressed many of the problems inherent in classical theory. The most serious objections to classical theory are that it created over conformity and rigidity, thus squelching creativity, individual growth, and motivation. Neoclassical theory displayed genuine concern for human needs. the belief that the goal of management was to maintain equilibrium. The emphasis was on being able to control and manipulate workers and their environment. Another is the Contingency Theory that views conflict as inescapable, but manageable. Classical and neoclassical theory viewed conflict as something to be avoided because it interfered with equilibrium. Effectiveness was a function of management’s ability to adapt to environmental changes. In highly volatile industries, they noted the importance of giving managers at all levels the authority to make decisions over their domain. Managers would be free to make decisions contingent on the current situation.
Among the different types of management approaches discussed above, the best to apply in the author’s scenario of fast food restaurant—Jollibee and McDonalds, is only among Empirical, Human Behavior and Social System. Empirical approach is the collection of the managerial experiences that are passed on through generation of management. Human Behavior organization method concentrates on the relationship among the individuals in the organization. It believes that proper encouragement and motivation leads to greater productivity. It shows that supervision is at best when the management is knowledgeable of the organization’s behavior. Meanwhile, in Social System it considers the organization as a whole. Internal and external environment relationship strongly occurs. Cooperation and harmony inside the organization is very important for it to achieve its objectives. In an organization like Jollibee and McDonalds, which recognizes that work force is a very significant factor in the success of their business; they must be able to recognize that the approach they need to apply is focused on their team members. Compared to Socio-Technical Systems approach, it is appropriate in a production type of organization, where it uses the changes in technology to be able to adapt their management. Moreover, mathematical techniques may not be suitable since what the organization needs is evaluation through relationship among the individuals and it would be difficult to measure it through numbers. Mathematical approach focuses on numbers, on the quantity that can be measured, but quality is what should be evaluated in terms of the relationship and camaraderie among team members LO3. Understand Ways of Using Motivational Theories in Organizations
The figure above is a model that illustrates different phases a person undergoes when there is change. The length of time that a person is experiencing the changes compared to the level of the emotional activity that is between being passive to active. A person undergoes several phases when there are changes that they are not able to control. The stages are stability, immobilization, denial, anger, bargaining, depression, testing, and acceptance. Stability represents the present condition just right after all have known a change. As of this phase, management must be able to make sure that everyone is aware of the exact changes that will arise, misunderstanding inside the organization is very vital as it will lead to more serious problems. Followed by a negative initial reaction that may vary between confusion and disorientation, a possibility of not relating what is really happening, that is called immobilization. There is a need for an intense motivation and encouragement from the management as early as this stage because a more powerful phase o is about to be rise. (Conner, May 1, 2012) Denial is the incapacity to adapt to the new information about the change; an individual usually rejects the changes that are about to happen or if possible they ignore it. After which, the anger stage sinks in, a very critical phase wherein an individual is sensitive and may burst strong emotions. During these two stages, there must be a stronger leader to handle the emotions of the workers. An autocratic type of leadership may work during this stage; the leader practices all power.
Therefore, the team members are given less authority to express their feelings; because at this stage of anger and denial, decisions may be irrational and maybe based on their feelings. Bargaining stage is where an individual starts to negotiate to resist the change or lessen the possible negative result. That is why; it is best fit to apply a democratic leadership. This way, voices of the team members will be heard and will be given importance and once more workers will motivated to work despite the changes as long as they are able to negotiate their needs. However, depression follows right after; when all changes have been taken into account. Workers will feel helpless with all the changes, that is why they need the camaraderie of their fellow workers. A lasses-faire type of leadership may work; as workers may help encourage each other to be motivated to fulfill their responsibilities despite the implemented changes. Before the last stage where an individual has accepted the changes that had happened, there is a testing phase. An individual regains his control with the situation as it has recognized his new limitations that will lead him to redefine his goals and objectives. Once more, with this stage the management must continue on inspiring their workers to be more open to the changes that they could not control. It would be best to switch to a democratic leadership as it gives a concrete leader but makes sure to give value to each suggestion from its team members.
M1. If student is able to describe Situational Leadership, core concepts and principles complimented with an illustration and are able to describe the different Developmental Maturity of subordinates and the appropriate Situational Leadership style and justify why.
Figure 1 Situational Leadership Matrix
The figure above is an illustration of different leadership styles in various situation. It summarizes it into four major types that are Supporting, Coaching, Empowering, and Directing. In situations wherein the employees have high competence but variable commitment, management must be able to give enough support. This support may be through encouragement and motivation in words. Moreover, they have to listen to the feedbacks, comments, and suggestion of these workers. Management must be able to find out why is there a change in their commitment to work. They may want changes in their environment to be able to work better and give their full commitment. After which, the management is also responsible in facilitating some team building or some sort of activities to level up the commitment of each workers. For those workers who are willing to give their commitment to the team but are not able to cope with the necessary abilities needed in their line of work; management must be able to fulfill this lack of capability through coaching.
These employees are still significant to the company as long as the management will be able to provide the proper direction and support that is through appropriate training and seminar. Moreover, they need proper direction because they are relatively inexperienced that they must have support and praise to build their self-esteem. Management must also be involve these workers in the decision making process to restore and boost their commitment. Meanwhile the directing style of leadership is best fit to workers who have high commitment but are lacking competence in their line of work. What these workers need is structure, control, and supervision that the management must be able to provide in the right time. However, for the empowering leadership style, these are best applied to workers who have been giving their full commitment to the team and have displayed high competence in their work. For these kind of workers, they must be kept by the organization because these are the future leaders of the team. They must be givena enough compensation that they may be continually motivated to perform better.
M2 If student is able to cite and describe its core concepts and principles of one (1) other leadership theories.
There are two dimension of Situational Approach to leadership that is according to whether an individual or team orientation. If it is individually oriented, then the style may change according to what type of person you are dealing with; it depends upon the worker’s competitiveness and commitment to achieving the teams’ objectives. Meanwhile a team orientation depends on its maturity whether forming, storming, norming or performing; but greatly focuses on empowering. There are things expected to be accomplished by the managers, after making a decision, it must be announced and the manager must be able to convince everyone that it is the best approach to achieve organization’s objective; manager may further present idea and invites everyone to ask questions but making sure to define appropriate limitations.
D1 If student is able to explain at least two Motivational theories/approach, discuss the application of these approaches in the workplace and evaluate its effectiveness based on own developed criteria.
D2 If student is able to discuss and relate the Motivation Theory – Goal Theory (Edwin Locke) and the Goal /Target Setting practice of management.
M3 If student is able to deliver a Power point presentation on a Leadership approach and at least three Motivational Theories. Criteria:
D1 If student is able to use critical reflections to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions.
D2 If student is able to take responsibility for managing and organizing activities.
D3 If student is able to relate the application and importance of Motivation (theory) and how this can impact on his/her own personal growth and development.
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