For any organization to gain competitive advantage it is necessary to manage human resource effectively, as traditional management models are inappropriate in our dynamic work environment. In any organization hiring, promotion, development and deployment are most important to be left to human resource alone. Organizations are finding themselves having to confront a variety of economic, technological, legal, and cultural changes with which they must cope effectively if they are to remain viable. The human capital of an organization consists of the people who work there and on whom the success of the business depends. Human capital represents the human factor in the organization; the combined intelligence, skills and expertise that gives the organization its distinctive character. The human elements of the organization are those that are capable of learning, changing, innovating and providing the creative thrust which if properly motivated can ensure the long-term survival of the organization. For any organization human capital is considered as the prime asset and for any business to survive it is important for the business to invest. Human resource management main aims is to ensure that the organization recruit the right personal for the right job and retain the skilled committed and well motivated workforce it needed. The Human Resource has to assess and satisfy future people need to enhance and develop the inherent capacities of their workers.
HR planning process determines the numbers of workers required by any organization to achieve its strategic goal, objectives. The main objective of the planning process is to ensure that the organization hire the right skills person for the right job. The competitive organizational strategy of the firm as a whole becomes the basis for the HR planning, which is the process of analyzing and identifying the need for and availability of human resources so that the organization would be in a position to achieve its strategic objectives and goals.
Human resource planning is an integral part of overall business planning. It identifies the core competences that an organization required to achieve its goals and therefore its skill and behavioral requirements. The main role of Human resource under business planning is to interprets these plans in terms of people requirements and draw attention to the ways in which people could be developed and deployed more effectively to further achievement of business goals as well as focusing on any problems that might have to be resolved in order to ensure that the people required will be available and will be capable of making the necessary contribution.
In any organization the Human resource department has most of the responsibilities for the planning process. Although other departments also provides data to HR to analyze. The top level managers are responsible for overall planning, they usually ask the Human resource department to project the human resource needed to implement overall goals of the organization.
The main role of Human resource planning process is to analyze the demand for labor within the organization and take necessary steps to ensure that to fill the position with the right person for the right job. In large organization they keep a record of how many employees are going to be retired in future and develop the demand for the new staff. In this way they can easily find the labor market, local, international or national from where they can recruit employees. Effective recruiting can have a significant positive impact on the organization, while poorly designed and executed recruiting involves all of the various activities aimed at attracting candidates to the organization. There are two main issues involved in recruitment i.e. cost of te recruitment and the relative effectiveness of the sources. The most difficult issue is the quality of the recruited individual and measurement of its effectiveness as it based on long term measures that are sometimes unreliable. There are main four stages of recruitment and selection: Defining requirement Planning recruitment campaign Attracting candidates Selecting candidates
The number and categories of people required may be set out in formal human resource or workforce plans from which are derived detailed recruitment plans. Requirements are expressed in the form of ad hoc demands for the new workers because the creation of new posts, expansion into new activities or area or the need for a replacement, in case of short-term demand can put the human resource department under pressure to provide the employee quickly. In an organization requirements for a job are set out in the form of job description and person specifications. These provide the required information to draft the advertisement. The assessments of the candidates are carried out by selection tests and interviews.
The recruitment plan mainly covers The number and type of employees required to cater for expansion or new development. The likely source of candidates Plans for tapping alternative sources How to recruitment program will be carried out
Next step is to attract the candidates. For attracting the candidates is to analyse the strength and weaknesses of the recruitments. The result of this analysis can be helpful for the human resource management to develop the employee brand and value proposition.
The last step is selection of the candidates. The aim of the selection is to assess the suitability of candidates by predicting the extent to which they will be able to carry out a role successfully. It involves deciding on the degree to which the characteristics of applicants in terms of their competencies, experience, qualification, education and training match the person specification. It also involves using this assessment to make a choice between candidates.
Training and development strategy approach is used by he organizations so that they can ensure that in the future they can achieve their goals by professional training & development of their employees. Training and development activities help the organization to achieve its goals by developing required skills and capacities of their employees. It can be described similarly as strategic human resource development
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