Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill as a Failure of Human Technology

Case summary

This case summary is about the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, on 20th April 2010 the Deepwater Horizon is a floating deep-sea oil-drilling platform that had an explosion and was occurred by fire. The Deepwater Horizon was operated by Transocean and leased to British Petroleum’s (BP) Macondo Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico. The fire blazed for 36 hours, destroyed the whole platform, and killed 11 oil rig workers, and 17 workers were severely injured by the explosion. The platform of Deepwater Horizon has a massive superstructure that collapsed and sank due to the explosion it went into the Gulf and produced a ‘wellhead blowout’ because the oil inlet was disconnected at a seafloor depth of 5,100 feet. Over the subsequent period was 87 days before the wellhead explosion was successfully capped on 15 July 2010 more than 4.9 million barrels of petroleum flowed into the Gulf it was estimated the cost is (210,000,000USD) and 780,000 gals was lost.

The main reason for this explosion was human-generated technology disaster involving a hazardous materials spill (petroleum and dispersant chemicals) that generated severe ecological impact and human-generated have the potential to create significant risk to psychological distress and the range of mental health consequences equaling and often exceeding the effects produced by natural disasters. As a fact of human causation, the investigation by the presidentially appointed National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was preventable said by the US government.

Moreover, the Gulf coast specifically designed $52 million directed to SAMSHA for research and programming to gain the knowledge of the importance of psychosocial health effects during oil spill disasters and the BP Trust Fund reparations to Gulf coast for this research and programming purpose.

At the end of this research, The Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill represented as a failure of human technology. Even though the hazardous materials spill had been developed early before the explosion and no one of the in-charge person considered the uncontrolled spillage from offshore. As a way to prevent this kind of disasters, the US government implanted ocean-floor camera to visualize the illuminated with networks displayed a24/7 real-time movements of the Deepwater Horizon.

DBH outcomes of oil slicks: audit of the writing. As recently checked on in detail,17,32 DBH results have been routinely reported alongside physical wellbeing impacts after oil slick disasters.32– 36 Mental wellbeing impacts were explored in the 1996 Sea Empress oil tanker spill in Wales37,38 and the 2002 sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the bank of Galicia, Spain.39– 41 However, the most extravagant wellspring of conduct wellbeing writing, preceding the Deepwater Horizon occasion, concentrated on the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.42– 49 Strong parallels have been drawn by the specialists who researched the Exxon Valdez calamity, connecting their exercises figured out how to the Deepwater Horizon spill.50– 52 Now, quite a while since the burst of the Deepwater Horizon wellhead, the DBH writing particular to this occasion proceeds to accrue.53– 65 One of the most articulated worries for Gulf Coast inhabitants was the ‘various introduction’ effect.7,8,66– 74 The geographic area most influenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil slick incorporated a similar Gulf Coast regions that were most crushed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.75– 78 The conceivable exacerbating impact of progressive ‘hits’ from both debacle occasions had been broadly estimated to lift dangers for noteworthy mental consequences.53,59,79– 82 Indeed, an investigation of people living in the Louisiana areas (regions) that got the heaviest shoreline oil pollution demonstrated a factually critical relationship between the dimension of earlier effect from Hurricane Katrina and the probability of indications of a posttraumatic stretch after Deepwater Horizon.59 The mental effects of oil slick catastrophes can persevere for quite a long time following the event.48,49 One year following the Exxon Valdez spill, for instance, there were huge increments in rates of tension issue, posttraumatic push issue (PTSD), and sorrow among occupants with an abnormal state of presentation to the spill and its cleanup efforts.44 Elevated dimensions of dejection, meddlesome pressure, shirking, and family struggle kept on being apparent 8 years post-spill.49 Additional people group level outcomes held on for a considerable length of time. Long-haul harm to the biological system influenced families and networks monetarily and socially. For instance, a few families whose jobs relied upon the regular habitat were compelled to migrate or live separated as a result of the biological harm caused by the spill.49 The degree and length of introduction to oil-based goods and dispersant synthetic concoctions may foresee the nearness and seriousness of mental pressure and pain.

Specifically noteworthy for examination is oil presentation for the oil slick cleanup laborers in connection to mental health.83– 87 For instance, following the Exxon Valdez spill, uncovered cleanup specialists had altogether higher rates of summed up uneasiness issue, PTSD, and real wretchedness contrasted and nonexposed controls.44 Recent investigations have inspected the wellbeing and mental outcomes of the Deepwater Horizon spill.53– 65 Four months after the spill, the Louisiana Department of Children and Family Services supported an examination to actualize emotional well-being needs evaluation in the four most affected Louisiana parishes.59 Despite the confinements of utilizing a nonrepresentative comfort test, discoveries were enlightening: respondents who communicated worries about the oil slick or who had encountered word related, family, or social interruptions because of the spill, had higher scores on sizes of posttraumatic stress, sorrow, and tension manifestations—subsequent to controlling for Hurricane Katrina affect, put fulfillment, and individual bounce back resilience.59 A review of inhabitants in Mobile County, Alabama found more elevated amounts of spill-related mental worry in respondents who demonstrated that the spill presented dangers to their monetary future, family wellbeing, and family funds and in overview members with business binds to characteristic assets and direct introduction to oil and contaminants.52 These outcomes were appeared to be similar to the psychological wellness impacts watched following the Exxon Valdez oil slick, further approving the significance of understanding the hazard factors regularly connected with social and mental results of oil slick disasters.52 Upon ask for from the conditions of Alabama and Mississippi, the CDC led the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) study in the quick repercussions of the spill in 2010 and repeated the study in 2011.61,62 Using inquiries from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) to give 2009 pre-spill correlations, agents studied delegate tests of the populaces of beach front Mississippi provinces and Baldwin and Mobile areas in Alabama.

Respondents in the CASPER test self-detailed higher extents of physically and rationally ‘unfortunate’ days, constrained action days, and burdensome indications promptly post-spill in 2010 contrasted and 2009 pre-spill BRFSS information for the two states.61,62 By 2011, these extents had all diminished notably toward gauge however stayed over 2009 levels.62 Following the 2011 replication, creators finished up, ‘These outcomes recommend that emotional wellness administrations are as yet required, especially in family units encountering diminished salary since the oil slick.’ 62 Acknowledging the significance of psychosocial wellbeing impacts amid oil slick calamities, BP’s Trust Fund reparations to the Gulf Coast particularly assigned $52 million for social wellbeing, with $42 million allocated to four Gulf Coast states and $10 million coordinated to SAMHSA to lead examine and programming.16,88,89 Joining powers with the CDC, SAMHSA utilized a portion of these assets to direct study investigate with delegate tests of occupants in 32 beach front provinces over the four influenced conditions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida.17 To evaluate impacts of the oil slick on substance utilize, SAMSHA included 2,000 meetings in these states to the continuous National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).

A basic plan component was the capacity to look at substance utilize rates for pre-and post-spill eras. NSDUH results indicated humble past-month increments in weed and liquor utilize. There were additionally expanded self-reports.

Investigation finding (causes of accident)

As for Deepwater Horizon the causes of this accident the careless action of employer who did not take care the platform of the Deepwater Horizon and did not hold up, he’s responsibility and the responsibility are to provide a workplace free from hazard’s and also to have complete OSHA stranded requirement’s (part IV, section 15-19). More over on this case explosion was human generated technology disaster involving a hazardous materials spill (petroleum and dispersant chemicals) and this happened because of the careless act of employees who should have complain or request hazard correction to employer following employee’s responsibility (part IV, section 24-27).   

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