Common Type of Diabetes

Abstract

This essay details the causes of type 2 diabetes and describes what kind of behavior can effectively improve or prevent type 2 diabetes. The essay cites three studies to prove that physical status, especially obesity increases the likelihood of having diabetes. Secondly, psychological pressure and eating habits are among the influencing factors.

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In addition to medical treatment for type 2 diabetes patients, there are many ways to effectively help and overcome the disorders. For example, with a reasonable diet and trying to avoid high cholesterol food. Keeping exercising but do not exercise too intensely. Maintaining a healthy state and mindset is also essential.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes, obesity, etiology, exercise habits, lifestyle.

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Part 1
If assume that my family member has a high chance of type 2 diabetes, and doctors recommend proper management of the lifestyle. After understanding and analysis of the life habits, I find that when life is busy, there is not much time and effort spent on diet for the family member. So ignoring breakfast or fast food became a substitute. And there is no time for exercise, inactive has become the state of life. In my nutrition class, I learned that the causes of type 2 diabetes may be affected. For psychological stress, the instability or panic caused the blood glucose and blood lipids to fluctuate, which affected the normal operation of insulin. When the emotions are reasonably controlled, insulin will play a normal role.

Type 2 diabetes is a common type of diabetes. Unlike type 1 diabetes, it does not mean to say that the body’s immune system is destroyed. It states that the body can still produce insulin, but it cannot be effectively used, which means it will be resisted. For some people, there may be too much insulin in the body, so it needs to be treated by oral means. Insulin is a hormone that is secreted by cells in the pancreas. It also has metabolic effects on sugar, and can promote the consumption, storage and utilization of sugar. For people with diabetes, if the blood sugar level in the body is already too high, the condition will increase. And also Insulin is the only factor that can lower blood sugar.

Part 2
Obesity is one reason that causes type 2 diabetes, because high blood sugar has caused damage of the muscles in the long-term. Blood glucose consumption has not been saved, but has

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Although long-term injection of insulin can promote the synthesis of fat, it still prevents the decomposition of fat. So the symptoms of obesity in patients are getting worse.
So for adults or older people, the lifestyle changes and the physical activity decreases. At the same time, rising living standards have changed the eating diet, so they consume too much energy. So they have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In the fourth unit of the book, the author makes a clear picture of the increasing number of obese people in recent years
Nyamdorj, 2012). From the chart, it also shows that obesity is almost a third in the United States.
Figure 1: Adult prevalence (%) of obesity (BMI ‰ 30 kg/m 2 ) measured by trained observers.

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As people’s age increases, social status and family status continue to change. At the same time, people’s moods will be ups and downs. When emotions are unstable and stress increases, people are particularly prone to impatience, which leads to endocrine disorders and elevated blood sugar. This is also a cause of type 2 diabetes.
Due to the continuous advancement of science and technology and the improvement of medical conditions, people are paying more and more attention to the problem of type 2diabetes.

It is complex and may be caused by a combination of factors. Obesity is a major factor in causing type 2 diabetes. People with BMI greater than 30 are obese. According to the article, it states that obesity is a feature of the new era, and the incidence of diabetes is also increasing. More than one-third of people in the United States suffer from obesity.

This article also mentioned that in addition to the degree of obesity can have an impact on diabetes, the location of fat accumulation also has an impact. Increased abdominal fat is reflected in the abdominal circumference and waist and hip. (Eckel et al. , 2011) Therefore, for obese people, especially if the upper body is too obese, it will lead to an increase in visceral fat, and it is even more unfavorable for insulin to maintain normal blood sugar. Instead, it will produce resistance and lead to type 2 diabetes. It is extremely important to maintain a healthful weight.

Obesity is an illness and can increase the probability that people have diabetes. So what can lead to obesity? Some people may say that their family members are not overweight but they are obese. In fact, there are many causes of obesity, which may be environmental factors, endocrine factors, or genetic factors. In the article, there is a certain close relationship between obesity and hyperinsulinemia. When the body is resistant to insulin, in order to maintain normal

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blood glucose levels, it will lead to an increase in the amount of  cells to help lower blood sugar. (Eckel et al. , 2011) So it means that when people eat food and replenish energy, a lot of nutrients like carbohydrates and proteins are absorbed through the digestive system and transformed in the body. When the  cells begin to secrete insulin, blood sugar levels remain normal. But if people eat too much, excess nutrients are stored, which can lead to weight gain.

Obesity particularly affects the health of adults. If it is overweight, it can cause chronic health problems. In the survey, Kitada et al. (2018) shows that diabetes is associated with more complications. For example, there are kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and more disease. And patients with diabetic nephropathy have a higher prevalence and increase mortality. The mutual influence between diseases poses a great danger to the patient’s health. As a high-risk cause of diabetes, obesity should be controlled to ensure the health of patients. Although diabetes can not be radically cured and healed, physical activity can be used to intervene and effectively improve the condition.

Part 3
Control of diabetes is not limited to injecting drugs. Although medication can effectively improve the condition, long-term injections can have a side effect. The accumulation of fat leads
to weight gain. It is not conducive to the improvement of diabetes. On the contrary, proper weight control is necessary. For weight control, there are references to weight loss in the article. However, this behavior is still inappropriate, and if the drug is stopped, it can cause a rebound effect or be taken regularly, which can cause serious injury to the body.The article also suggests that self-monitoring should be used to improve the balance between diet and exercise. 

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example, reduce fat and carbohydrate intake. (Eckel et al. , 2011) So, as mentioned in the article, self-monitoring is a guarantee of health. Regular blood glucose monitoring is necessary. In particular, take measurements before meals and keep body in check.
This means controlling weight and starting from the ground up. It is necessary to strictly control the diet and try to achieve reasonable nutrition. Patients should also have small meals and  regular meals.

For breakfast, high-fiber foods are more conducive to intake of sugar, such as steamed bread, high-fiber biscuits and so on. Lunch requires nutritious food, but the fat content cannot be too high. Fish, chicken and pasta can be properly prepared. The habit of drinking alcohol and smoking should be stopped and the increase of cholesterol should be avoided.

Physical exercise is also an effective way to help obese diabetics lose weight. However, to avoid excessively intense exercise, we can choose to exercise with endurance. For example, after a meal, we can take a walk and play Tai Chi. It is best to exercise with our family. And
adding water in a timely manner. It is a long-term behavior to improve the condition of diabetes by controlling weight or losing weight. It is necessary to pay more patience for exercise.

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Reflection
At the time of writing this essay, the easier part to write is the specific implementation plan for prevention or improvement of type 2 diabetes. Because after understanding the etiology of type 2 diabetes, it can be based on the cause of the disease to further study how to reduce the prevalence rate or to control the development of the disease. For example, in addition to drug treatment, maintaining a healthy state of mind and reducing psychological pressure.When attention to maintaining blood pressure and the stabilization of blood glucose levels that can effectively help relieve symptoms.

For the first part of the article, it is difficult for me to assume that the cause of the family members illness or if any behaviors be able to make some changes in the disease. Because I dont have enough information about type 2 diabetes. I could hardly have a deep understanding of type 2 diabetes except what I learned in class. And I can not be determined other factors such as genetic and obesity. When making hypotheses about a certain behavior, it is difficult for me to determine whether this behavior can actually help with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to make assumptions or bold conjectures on a topic or research, but for me later research and data collection are more important. This can help me understand more deeply and find a reasonable solution that is of great help. So in the same situation afterwards, I will try to spend more time reading or consulting experienced people to obtain effective information.

References

  • Eckel, R. H., Kahn, S. E., Ferrannini, E., Goldfine, A. B., Nathan, D. M.,
  • Schwartz, M. W., Smith, S. R. (2011). Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: What Can Be Unified and What Needs to Be Individualized? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96(6), 1654“1663. https://doi.org/ 10.1210/jc.2011-0585
  • Kitada, M., Ogura, Y., Suzuki, T., Monno, I., Kanasaki, K., Watanabe, A., & Koya, D. (2018). A
    low-protein diet exerts a beneficial effect on diabetic status and prevents diabetic
    nephropathy in Wistar fatty rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes and
    obesity. 
  • Nutrition & Metabolism, 15, Nutrition & Metabolism, 2018, Vol.15.
    Nyamdorj, R. (2012).
  • Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. In Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes (Vol. 1,
    pp. 39-64). Bentham Science. 
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