Book Review: the Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

The author briefly describes his purpose in writing this book. “My purpose in writing this book is to provide an initial text about what the fourth industrial revolution is, what it brings, how it affects us, and what can be done to guide it into the common good. This book is for people who are interested in the future, who are committed to using the opportunities of this revolutionary change to make the world a better place.”

I have three main objectives: To raise awareness on the scope and speed of the technological revolution and its multifaceted impact, To create a framework that illuminates core professions and possible reactions to think about the technological revolution, To provide a platform to inspire public-private sector cooperation and partnership on issues related to technology.

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Above all, this book aims to emphasize how technology and society coexist. It is not an external force without any control over technology. We are not constrained by a dual choice between iz Agree and live together ve and ’reject and live with it‘. Instead, we should take dramatic technological change as an invitation to reflect on who we are and how we see the world. The more we think about how we can make use of the technological revolution, the more we can examine ourselves and the underlying social models that these technologies involve and make possible, and the more we have the opportunity to shape this revolution in such a way as to improve the state of the world.

This is an introduction to the book is organized in three sections. In the first chapter, he gives an overview of what is what he describes as the fourth industrial revolution. The second part is about transformative technologies, and the last part is devoted to the effects of this revolution and the challenges and resistances it creates in societies. Yes, a gigantic change is waiting for us, and it seems that this change is going to turn the world into a different place, and that all the current paradigms have been demolished and replaced by old ones.

He first enters the book in a historical context and continues with the economic revolutions that humanity is experiencing.The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture occurred about 10,000 years ago, the first major change in our lifestyle. Having added that this is the domestication of animals, the agricultural revolution states that animal labor is combined with human labor for the purpose of production, transportation and communication, however, food production gradually improves, supports population growth and makes larger human settlements possible. This has led to urbanization and the rise of cities. From there, he is moving straight into the industrial revolution. In fact, in the 18th century, the industry was able to overcome the stages of human migration, including demographic change, geographic change as a result of conquests and wars, the discovery of continents, the pioneer of money-shelling, the beginning of the trade everywhere, the accumulation of capital, colonialism and plunder. is making a transition to the revolution.

Series of industrial revolutions followed the agricultural revolution from the second half of the 18th century onwards. This process brought the transition from muscle strength to mechanical strength, and finally the fourth industrial revolution was where the advanced cognitive power increased human production.The first industrial revolution lasted from approximately 1760 to 1840. He pioneered mechanical production with the construction of the Revolution Railways and the introduction of the steam engine. The second industrial revolution, which gained momentum in the late 19th century and the beginning of the twentieth century, enabled mass production with the support of the electricity and assembly line. The third industrial revolution began in the 1960s. It was often referred to as a computer revolution or digital revolution because it was developed under the guidance of semiconductors, hosts, (1960s), personal computers (1970s, 1980s) and the Internet (1990s).

He says that we are now on the verge of the fourth industrial revolution and that he started with the 2000s. “Him; it is a much more common and mobile internet characterizing the machine learning with smaller but more powerful sensors and artificial intelligence. Here is a very important emphasis. He says that maktad In our world where around 1.3 billion people still do not have access to electricity, the second industrial revolution is fully experienced by only 17 percent of the total population. The same applies to the third industrial revolution. More than half of the world’s population, 4 billion people in most developing countries do not have internet access.

In spite of all these indicators, this revolution has the potential to spread very rapidly in a whole world, because it walks through digital and information, does not want high investment capital, and stands as a world where people can adapt so easily as a result of self-education. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is not just about intelligent and connected machines and systems, its scope is much broader. There is a wave of simultaneous breakthroughs in a range of fields from gene sequencing, nano technologies, renewable energies, quantum information processing. What differentiates the fourth industrial revolution from other revolutions is the interplay of these technologies in physical, digital and biological fields.

Today everyone is known by Airbnb, Uber, Alibaba etc. There was no one more than a few years ago. The number of smartphones launched for the first time in 2007 was around 2 billion at the end of 2015. In 2010, Google declared its first autonomous car completely automatic. Such means will become a reality of roads. At the same time, it shows us the striking results by comparing the capital accumulation in the previous period and the workforce in return for today’s values.

In the next chapter he describes and analyzes the potential impacts of the fourth industrial revolution on the economy, business, states and countries, society and individuals. He says that he will create enormous influences on the economy, and he examines it in three parts. Growth, productivity and employment.

There are two views on growth, the first is the pessimists who argue that the critical contribution of the digital revolution has already been realized and the impact on productivity is almost over; it says. Before the crisis in 2008, the annual growth rate is around 5 percent, while the pressure on poverty will relax within 10-15 years. It is a world-wide reality that this is not only limited to developed countries, but it has a negative impact on growth.As for employment, it doesn’t say much at the moment, but this technological development can fuel unemployment.

As a result of increasing automation in female employment, there is an increasing unemployment rate. “A key issue here is the relative yield of roles that require different technical skills in terms of time and effort. This is because there is a risk that personal services and other categories of work that are currently weighted are underestimated. If so, the fourth industrial revolution may further increase the divergence between male roles and female roles. This can be a negative consequence of the fourth industrial revolution, as it will increase the general inequality and the gender gap and make it more difficult for women to use their own talents within the future of labor. In relation to the nature of the work, we are more flexible and more independent, and we have a period to do our own work, but we are facing a period when the social security systems are almost zeroed.

  • Customer expectations are changing.
  • Data improves products, which increases asset productivity.
  • As companies learn the importance of new forms of cooperation, new partnerships are formed.
  • Operation models are becoming new digital models.
  • Companies that have the ability to combine digital, physical and biological dimensions often succeed in disrupting all sectors and associated production, distribution and consumption systems.

The fourth industrial revolution will allow companies to expand their use cycles of assets and resources, to expand their use and to re-aim materials and energy for other uses, and to reduce emissions and resource burdens in the process.

In short, the book holds a point of view for those who may be in the future, and it seems that these changes will take place at a time that is not very long. Societies that cannot produce high technology in this matter will face extinction in a world that is already very unequal. Or, by using these technologies and innovations from the bottom, civil movements, which will start in societies, will establish a common and sharing world with a purely informative way, leaving behind the nation-states and capitals of the old period.

I don’t know whether these issues are being discussed by ideological groups, Socialists, Islamists or Nationalist groups, but the founder of the World Economic Forum, the boss of the bosses, discusses such a topic and proposes to share and share with us. The question of whether we will live in a more moral world with all living beings and human beings in the world is the most important question.

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