Blood Donation and other Transmission Ways of COVID-19

The Author Al-Hami presents information about COVID-19 infection, which has taken a rise in recent years and is affecting healthcare globally. From 2016 the coronavirus had been a significant concern because millions of people would be at risk warns the article. The article discusses how you get the virus, risk factors, and prevention methods. The report was informative as it mentions that the virus starts like a common cold but can quickly transform into a severe respiratory infection. The goals are to gather information about COVID-19, then develop methods and interventions to control the spread of the virus.

Burnett, N. (2013). Rabies. Journal of Special Operations Medicine: A Peer-Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals, 13(3), 102-104.

Describes rabies as a virus that spreads through infected bats or saliva that has the virus. It starts by attacking the central nervous system as well as the muscle and peripheral nerves. It can take a little as a few days to years for the rabies virus to affect the body, and this can lead to paresthesia, mood disorder, and fever. This article is informative because it tells you that the virus attacks the medulla and midbrain; death can happen within days of the illness attacking these vital areas of the body. To diagnose the infection, there is an immunofluorescent exam of the brain and skin by taking a biopsy. Other than blood, the virus can be isolated from your body fluid, and there is a vacation called prophylaxis vaccinations. The views of the article were those of the author and might not necessarily be proof facts.

Cai, Sun, Huang, Gamber, Wu, He, & Cai, Jing. (2020). Indirect Virus Transmission in Cluster of COVID-19 Cases, Wenzhou, China, 2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(6), Emerging infectious diseases, March 12, 2020, Vol.26(6).

This article discusses the ways the virus is transmitted and where the virus originated, referring to Wuhan China. It further goes into detail, saying that the virus can be on contaminated objects, aerosolization of confined spaces, and it can be spread through person to an infected person. The author wanted to investigate whether the virus can survive out the body for long. However, other conflicting researches from the Middle East suggest that it can, mentioning it is robust and can survive for 60 minutes outside the body. This is a valuable source because it pinpoints where and how the virus can be contacted, spread, origin, and how long it can survive outside the body.

Cheng, Vincent C.C., Sridhar, Siddharth, Wong, Shuk-Ching, Wong, Sally C.Y., Chan, Jasper F.W., Yip, Cyril C.Y., . . . Yuen, Kwok-Yung. (2018). Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmitted Via Blood Transfusion, Hong Kong, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(1), 49-57.

Discusses the origin of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) happen in China and Asia. The authors explain that it is a mosquito-borne endemic that infects 1% of the population. It is transmitted through blood and blood donation and causes encephalitis of infected people. This article summarizes the transmission and transfusion of blood components in addition to understanding JEV in the blood and measuring the risk. The Japanese Encephalitis Virus is endemic and figuring out the best way to stop the virus is what is essential.

Koehler, A., Pfeiffer, S., Kolesnikova, L., & Becker, S. (2018). Analysis of the multifunctionality of Marburg virus VP40. The Journal of General Virology, 99(12), 1614-1620.

The Author Koehler Pfeiffer explains the pathogen comes from Flaviviridae, which is considered a group 4 pathogen, and it is an extremely legal pathogenic to humans. The early symptoms can include muscle pain, chills, fever, and nausea, to name a few. If a patient is lucky to withstand the virus, they can have long term illnesses such as rashes, neurological damage, bleeding, and several organ failures. This article was covers topics of how the virus spreads through semen and how there is no cure to treat MARV. The author zeroes in on the MARV protein VP40; this was an essential part of the article because the protein is vital to assembling and releasing viral particles, inhibitors, transcription, and replications.

Kumar, A., Sharma, P., Shukla, K., Misra, S., & Nyati, K. (2019). Japanese encephalitis virus: Associated immune response and recent progress in vaccine development. Microbial Pathogenesis, 136, 103678.

Japanese encephalitis has kills more than seventh thousand and cause ten thousand deaths. The clinical trials and outcome dependents upon; virulence of viral determinants or the host immune responses. The article is a good source for students and professionals who want more information. Cause infected the JE virus penetrates the CNS from blood and triggers rapid humoral and cell-mediated immune response. Vaccination prevents but there is no antiviral treatment is available to date. Arthur stress the importance of understanding the pathogenesis of JEV infection can enable the researchers to presume the dept of treatment and saving lives.

Peters, C. (1997). Ebola and hantaviruses. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 18(4), 281-289.

Peters discuss Ebola and Hantavirus HPS viruses as one of the highest rates of mortality caused by an RNA virus. These two viruses have no cure or vaccines, even though the infections are different dynamics as far as history status and ecology, it similar in the emergence of the virus in the world’s epidemic. They are both dangerous viruses that are killing people worldwide. The article summarizes what is known about Ebola and HPS, which is a febrile disease that causes pulmonary edema. It stated that the virus has a 50% death rate within 3 to 4 days with a fever, malaise, and myalgia. The importance of the article was information about these two viruses, and the progress made so far.

Rosenke, Kyle, Feldmann, Heinz, Westover, Jonna B., Hanley, Patrick William, Martellaro, Cynthia, Feldmann, Friederike, . . . Safronetz, David. (2018). Use of Favipiravir to Treat Lassa Virus Infection in Macaques. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(9), 1696-1699.

The authors explain the Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in West Africa that causes fever and severe hemorrhagic in people. There is essential information about the treatment of LASV; for example, rats are the primary host of the virus, and it can then be transferred from human to human. To treat Lassa ribavirin, its recommend in the early stage and or favipiravir is given for two weeks, to treat the infection.

Sohrabi, C., Alsafi, O’Neill, Khan, Kerwan, Al-Jabir, . . . Agha. (2020). World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). International Journal of Surgery, 76, 71-76. Write description

An outbreak of pneumonia of unknown in Wuhan City, China emerged in December 2019. Coronavirus was identified as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Considered a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 is caused by a beta coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in humans. Arthur was informing despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with 90,870 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 3,000 deaths worldwide. The Article summarize the current state of knowledge surrounding COVID-19. And outbreak has been declared a global health emergency.

Wong, G., Cao, W., He, S., Zhang, Z., Zhu, W., Moffat, E., . . . Qiu, X. (2018). Development and characterization of a guinea pig model for the Marburg virus. Zoological Research, 39(1), 32-41.

The zoological research article test and compare results of the Marburgvirus Angolan strain to show that is can cause death up to 90% however, when the rodents were infected, they did not show any visible symptoms. The virus takes 7-9 days after infection to kill the animal model. According to the article, one purpose was to develop and characterize the MARV variant to screen for therapeutic and prophylactic findings. According to the report, one objective was to create and describe the MARV variant to test for therapeutic and prophylactic results.

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