What Is Time Management?

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Background

What is time management? Time management is a short-range planning, time attitude, long-range planning on academic performance. Unfortunately, there are many temptations around us so that we cannot finish our goal on time. Time management plays a vital role in improving a studentr’s academic performance.

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According to Zhang and RiCharde, 1998, the top three reasons why students drop out of college are the inability to handle stress, lack of commitment, and the realization of the gap between expectations and college realities. As a student in MMU, we like to carry out a study about the impact of time management in academic achievement. From our studies, we found some of the impacts of time management which is the student will have a proper planning, their stress level would be reduced, the student will be more self-efficiency.

First, the student would have a proper planning and time management, which is support by Patton (2012). McFadden and Dart, 1992 who reported an influence of total study time on expected grade outcome, support this belief. Some of the MMU students are having a part-time job after their classes, therefore, the amount of total study time will be reduced. It is commonly assumed that students who spent more time studying will receive much better grades than students who have only limited time to study. Due to part-time working job students are suffering from lack of study time, their grades are expected to be lower. Previous studies, which was study by Nonis and Hudson, 2006 and Strauss et al., 2002, explored the relationship between the number of hours worked per week and college students academic.

Students often thought that the amount of time they have spent for studying and doing homework will decide whether they will receive good grades or not because they tend to focus on how long they studied instead of how well they remembered the subject or material. Gose, 1998 reported that 39 per cent of college freshman are working 16 hours or more per week, and projected annual increases in the number of students who work while attending school. Nonis and Hudson, 2006 suggested that professors might be expecting less from students in order for them to fulfil multiple requirements and meet good grades. However, the relationship between the amount of time dedicated to working and academic performance is not always clear. Nonis and Hudson, 2006 found no clear influence between hours spent on working and GPA outcomes. Similarly, Light (2001) explored the relationship between workload and grades among college students and found that students who work more hours per week reported higher grades.

Besides that, a good time management can cut the level of stress. If students were too stressed, it can interfere with their ability to interpret and memorize the knowledge that they learnt in their studies as well as achieving a good result in their academic. Schuler (1979) stated that people that have a greater perception of their time and responsibilities are more likely to be less stress. Struthers (2000) shows that the emotional strain and tension causes by college can affect the academic performance among undergraduate. The ability to prioritization of task can keep the studentr’s mind from being consumed by stress and the feelings of overwhelmed when studying. By knowing that the students are able to control their time sufficiently can lower the amount of unhealthy stress they felt during the progress of their tasks.

Bond and Feather, (1988) stated that these type of students tends to have less psychological issues and involve in all kinds of activities such as clubs or sports. Brown (1985) found that student with a higher perception of time management can increase their concentration on the given task and the amount of time they needed to be spent on each task. Quek (2001) stated that some people, especially the student, face the problem in fighting the urge to procrastinate all their works when they did not have the schedule or strict deadlines on each task. As a result, they are often easy to divert their attention to the distractions around them, preventing them from completing the specific task, and thus increasing the level of stress. Reducing the level of stress can increase the motivation among students that influence greatly in a positive way on their overall academic performance.

Furthermore, the time management skill will directly influence students self-efficiency toward their studies. Self-efficiency as a student is the student is able to do their tasks on time, and they could perceive their control over tasks. Previous studies show that decreased stress results in increased self-efficacy. Self-efficacy as one’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations or do a task. According to Eccles et al. (1998), student self-efficacy represents their ability to complete tasks well based on how well they perceive control over their tasks. For example, if students have a greater sense of confidence, then they will feel more motivated to complete academic-related tasks with a stronger overall performance. Self-efficacy is often referred to as a strong predictor of higher GPAs among college students which supported by Brown et al., 1989, Hackett et al., 1992, Landy et al., 1991, Miche et al., 2001. An earlier study by Sandler (2000a) suggested self-efficacy as a stronger predictor of student intentions to stay in school than stress because it has a more positive impact on academic performance. In a similar study, Deci et al. (1991) reported that once they have a clear idea of their goals, students can set up measurable objectives to achieve each goal. Chemers et al. (2001) suggest students are more motivated to accomplish tasks associated with achieving their goals, and students who have a higher self-efficacy perceive stressful tasks as challenges than obstacles. Therefore, they possess a greater confidence in their academic performance, which results in an increase in student motivation.

As a short conclusion, the time management influence the student, to have a proper planning, and time management to avoid distress becomes imperative, the student will feel lesser stress and the student will be more self-efficiency.

Reference Of Terms

This report is to study the impact of time management to academic achievement. Our PWC1010 lecture, had requested this report in 20th November 2018 and we start our research at the 2nd week after our topic was approved by our lecture. We need to submit this report in week 14 of trimester 2, 2018 2019 session. Our group is formed by 5 people, which is Chong Feng Bin (1151105476), Seek Chang Yuan (1151105385), Mohamad Syafiq Bin Nasaruddin (1161102250), Nur Afrina Binti Che Azhar (1161101877) and Sim Shan Chuan (1151100486).

Purpose

The purpose of this report is:

  • to determine the habit of arranging time among student in MMU
  • identity the impact of the time management to the student in academic performance
  • to train the habit of time management to the student in MMU

Scope

The study aims to determine the comparison to academic achievement among students in Multimedia University Malacca (MMU). The sample of population that are chosen for this study are the Multimedia University Malaccar’s engineering students, male and female of all races such as Malay, Chinese, Indian and other races. There are more male students than female students that participate in this research because of the number of the male that enrolled in engineering course is larger than the female. The reason is also applied to why the number of Chinese student is more than the other races in this study. The study will takes place in Multimedia University Malacca due to the main purpose of this study is focusing among engineering student in Multimedia University Malacca. The collection of data that are required for this research will be starting from week 5 until week 6.

Method

The method of data collection that we will be using in this research is survey method. We will be preparing the self- admistered survey questionnaires for our primary data collection. This survey will be carried out in MMU Malacca and we will randomly pick 50 engineering student to help us to complete the questionnaire. Every races will be helping us to complete the survey because we need to know the habit of time management among between different personality, different background etc. The questionnaire will be distribute around FET building in the data collection week. Our group have five member, so each of us will have 10 sheets of questionnaire forms. The forms will be conduct face to face to the person who is doing the survey. This is because we need to confirm our questionnaire could be collect and analyze immediately. Besides that, we will used some of the ideas and information from journals, scientific article to prepare our survey question.

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