In order to look for a precise body composition we will take a number of physical measurements during the study. Anthropometric measures such as gender, age, size (height, weight) will be collected.
]Subject’s height will be taken erect with their back against the wall stadiometer. The subject will stand bare-footed with heels together. Their hands places on their hips, with the nose pointed straight forward as they hold their head in the Frankfort horizontal plane. Height will be measured as the subject inhales. A straight edge will be used to place over the subject’s head, and the measurement will be read off the wall stadiometer. The measurement will be taken in centimeters to the nearest tenth. Steps are repeated, and the average of the two measurements will be used as the height.
Subject’s weight will be taken using a scale. Subjects will wear light clothes and stand on the scale while facing forward. Weight will be measured in kilograms to the nearest tenth. Subject will be asked to step of scale, steps are repeated, and the average of the two measurements will be used as the body weight.
Tanita (Body Composition Analyzer Model TBF-310) uses SF-BIA to determine body composition. It has the ability to determine fat mass, fat-free mass and total body weight. This technology measures the resistance to the signal as it travels through the water that is found in muscle and fat. In other words, the more muscle a person has the more water will retain and the greater the amount of water the faster the signal will pass through it. The procedure follows specific techniques indicated in the Tanita operating manual as well as protocols established by Ritchie et al:
Foot-to-foot BIA is conducted using the Tanita Scale plus body fat Monitor, Model BF-556. Subjects are measured standing erect with bare feet on the analyzer footpads. Subjects discussed their usual level of physical activity with the investigator. Amount (i.e., hours exercised per week) and type of usual deliberate physical activity, excluding activities of daily living, are recorded. The Tanita analyzer defines activity levels as follows: inactive (little or no exercise), moderately active (occasional, low intensity exercise), active (exercises regularly), and athlete (intense exercise). Individuals indicated their level of physical activity through self-report (inactive, moderately active, active, or athlete), and height, age, and physical activity level are entered into the Tanita. Percent body fat are estimated using the Tanita’s programmed height, weight, age, and sex-specific equation, and percent body fat are recorded.
The Biodex isokinetic system measures isokinetic strength by using a computer assisted machine. This machine allows for a safe way to load a muscle to maximum capacity through a complete range of motion. The Biodex can measure, analyze and increase strength of muscles. The Biodex limits muscle contraction to a set rate regardless of the amount of force applied.
Subject will complete 4 sets of 5 maximal eccentric contractions on the Biodex (knee flexion and extension). The following degrees per second will be tested, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300. In between sets the subject will be given a 1-minute break. Peak power and maximum torque will be measured after each set has ended
The cycle ergometer is a fixed cycling machine used in fitness testing. The rate per minute (rpm) and resistance are adjustable.
Subjects will use a Monark Cycle Ergometer and start pedaling without any resistance. Subject used the rpm reader on the Monark Cycle Ergometer screen to keep to a rhythm of 50 rpm.
Blood flow restriction cuffs allow for the restriction of venous blood to muscles. The cuffs are wrapped around an extremity which partially restricts the blood flow to the muscle while exercising. Although venous blood is blocked, the cuff allows arterial blood to flow/reach the muscles.
Blood flow restriction cuffs will be applied to the subject’s right quadriceps muscle. The subject will be seated with the cuff applied. The subject will be in this condition for five minutes.
The vibration platform uses a motor to produce vibrations. The frequency of the machine can be adjusted. Once a subject steps on the platform, the muscles become flexed, as they are trying to stabilize their body to prevent falling. Muscle becomes stimulated as the body automatically contracts all muscle to balance.
The subject will be seated with their legs firmly placed on a vibration platform. The subject will be in this condition for 5 minutes.
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