Stressful Interpersonal Relationships

DEPRESSION AND STRESS AMONGST CHILDHOOD AND ADOLES

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Many factors can lead to children and adolescents being affected by chronic stress through loss in the family, divorce, lack of sleep, impulsive behavior, lack of family support, poor self – esteem, and early marriage. Acute or chronic stress contributes to the development of health risk for coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, diabetes, obesity, depression, substance abuse, obesity, osteoporosis, impaired reproductive, immune functions and, metabolic syndrome.

Stress is a chain reaction that involves the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. This consist of the CRH (hypothalamic corticotropic releasing hormones that regulate hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Increased and prolong production of CRH, cortisol and catecholamine and cytokine can manifest or contribute to chronic stress. Which can result in hypoactivation of HPA axis, chronic hypersecretion of stress which lead to an increase in insulin hypersecretion, growth hormones and sex steroid hypersecretion causing accumulation of fat in visceral adipose tissue, loss of muscle, osteoporosis, hypertension, irreversible effect on brain development, delays in myelination, and abnormality in development. It is a condition that threatened homeostasis, which is the major complex equilibrium of all organism.

The Natural Health and Nutrition Examination survey, children and adolescent with High BMI have a higher prevalence of developing depression and anxiety disorder. This is more common in female children that are exposed to abuse. Abused children are more likely to be obese by young adulthood than non-abused children. The study of a health outcome in Russian adults who experienced the siege of Leningrad in 1941 – 1944 when they were children. Higher mortality from ischemic heart cerebrovascular disease was noted in women and men exposed to stress in their childhood.

I was at a conference where the moderator asked what was the common drive for all human, we all pondered and came up with different answers to religious drive, empathy, and more. We all agreed with the moderator when he said self-recognition, to be understood, wanted, respected, believed, and trusted. At the end of the day to know that our self-esteem was not rubbished, this desire had led to war between countries fighting for power, losing lives and destruction of properties. There are numerous factors that lead diminishing Self-Esteem which can cause depression and stress. Self-esteem described as self-confidence in ones worth, which can also lead to depression. The article objective was to identify relationships between self-esteem and other neurotic behaviors like negative emotionality, depression, and anxiety.

Stress is a condition that threatened homeostasis. Homeostasis which is the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes. Depression diagnostics as follows in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-iv are a major depressive disorder, Dysthymia. In some adolescent, less secure attachment to their mothers and both parents were associated with being depressed. Other factors that can lead to depression are biological, cognitive, developmental and interpersonal factors. The quality of parental relationship with a child to feel secure and insecure is also a foundation for the course of mental health.

In some adult there are other ways to what is called Late-Life Depression, older people are more somatic in fear of their old and frail state/ low esteem, feeling of worthlessness, self-accusatory trends with paranoid and suicidal formations.

A test was carried out among 100 pupils from secondary school and high school in Brasov, Romania. The mean age for the investigation ranged from 15.72 with a stigma deviation of 2.13. Male gender at 41 and female gender at 59, their cycles are 47 in gymnasium cycle and 53 in high school cycle.

The instruments to analyze and determine the sub-dimensions of self-esteem used are as follows:

• Self -Perception Questionnaire (SPQ, Clinciu 2010) it consists of items composed of pairs of polar statements, describes as “I need a very long time to make a decision” to statements like “I make decisions easily, without delay”. SPQ results are very good with internal consistency with high scores values with alpha Cronbach value at 0.92.

• Corporal Self-Esteem Perception (CSP, Clinciu 2010) used to describe the values of acceptance and non-acceptance of physical attributes

• Social Self-Esteem Inventory (SSEI, Lawson, Marshal and McGrath, 1997) used to determine the social component of self-esteem. Scores range from 1: completely different from me to 6: exactly like me.

• Multidimensional Anxiety Scale (MASC, March 1997) highly rated for determining and monitoring anxiety in children and adolescent from ages 8-19 years. This instrument covers 39 items majoring in areas of physical symptoms, social anxiety, harm avoidance and separation anxiety.

• Children Depression Inventory: (CDI, Kovacs, 1979) measures and rates the severity of symptoms of depression in children and adolescents. It covers symptoms oriented scales consisting of 27 items which are categorized into 5 major factors as described Negative mood, Interpersonal problems, ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and negative Self-Esteem.

The research revealed the relationship between self-esteem and depression. Depression and anxiety are functions of evaluative action based on a different connotation for each. Anxiety considered a situation based on its conjectural and variable element while depression is based individual who is subjected to negative self-appraisal. Depression and anxiety are due to unfavorable stress, having negative emotional states associated with feelings of worry and negative thinking, interfering with people’s daily life. (Seligman walker and Rosenham 2001).

Depression and stress have been a high concern for health professional because it is a major factor that contributes to health risk. Long-term high level of depression or anxiety can lead to higher risk of health complication later in life (Zivin, Eisenberg, Gollust, & Golberstein 2009). Depression and stressful life can lead to suicidality, social problem, poor physical, educational impairment and mental health. Depression is diagnosed with symptoms of persistent negative thought, sadness, loss of interest in social activities, excessive guilt, appetite disturbance, (some people overeat and become obese), crying, increased irritability, anger, and low energy.

The college has been considered the transitional period from childhood to young adult. This is the period that depression, stress, and anxiety can occur. According to American College Health Association (ACHA), college students are more susceptible to stress as a consequence of maturational changes and beginning a new social life and environment to which they have to adjust. Transitional changes like away from an attached parent/home, handling a multiple or difficult tasks, time management, combine school and work, economy/ financial condition, lack of sleep and emotional condition. Andrew and Wilding (2004), reported that college students frequently experience problems like financial difficulties, poor academic performance and stressful interpersonal relationships which made them particularly vulnerable to anxiety, stress, and depression.

Physical activities can also help with depression and stress. A study reported on the significant inverse relationship between leisure times, physical activity with depression symptom among adolescents who participated in school-based (Molt, Birnbaum, Kubik, and Dishman 2004), Goodwin (2003 & Martinsen 2008), recently reported that effect of exercise has a decreasing depression and stress levels. A three-part questionnaire was used in the study.

• The first was demographic information including age, gender, grade levels, ethnical background, and academic performance (GPA).

• The second was on the participant to recall exercise frequency, duration of exercise, type of exercise.

• The third part was based on stress vulnerability scale, which was modified from Hoeger and Hoeger’s depression, anxiety and stress (2005).

The questionnaire was administered on 30 universities, at a university located in the northeast region of United States as a pilot survey in fall 2007. One hundred and twenty university students (55 female and 65 male) completed the questionnaire. Twenty-one percent of the sample showed significant symptoms of depression and stress vulnerability more than 60 out of 100. The male college student has higher weekly physical activity than the female. Physical activity participation should be more encourage or implemented in the college.

Cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy can be effective for treating depression in adolescence. The parent can so play an important role in supporting and be involved positively in their child’s life. Medication like antidepressant can be used to target chemical imbalances in the brain.

Future researcher should work on how we can get less sleep and still function properly, will surely be appreciated by me but if unproven, creating awareness and importance sleep to childhood and adolescence in high schools, colleges and at workplaces is highly important in our community to encourage more sleep and less work for the sake of healthy living. Students should try to sleep for at least 7 to 8 hours in a day. My experience as a nursing assistant working the moonlight shift and having to study as put its toll on my strength and am yet to balance the time, we have been avail to boost and enhancements ourselves with coffee and energy drinks, which contribute to health risk.

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Stressful Interpersonal Relationships. (2022, Apr 11). Retrieved December 9, 2022 , from
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