Advanced model of policing have advancements and contributing benefits. Conventional model of policing has strengths and weaknesses. This essay will discus various issues surrounding the strengths and weaknesses attributed to the main process and benefits in advancement models of policing. The main subtopics of the essay will be rapid advancements in conventional policing, patrol & rapid response, legal authority and constraints, police activity research, challenges to standard model policing. foot patrol police. the limitations of conventional policing, strategic shifts in operational police practice, community policing: strengths, weaknesses, main process and benefits attributed to advanced models, advanced techniques & systems integrate, with advanced models of hot spot policing, third party policing, advanced models for investigating, police diversity within diverse communities, recruitment management and leadership, accountability and regulation and the future of conventional police practice. evidence, examples, issues and conflicts of interest will be examine comparing the contrast from different perspectives.
I hypothesise that contemporary police practice has a proactive focus on crime prevention. Through the integration of traditional policing strategies of effectiveness and efficiency, combined with contemporary police practice. Conventional police practice and organisations all have strengths and weaknesses but overall are proactive in advancing towards better more efficient and reliable consistency of policing.
The standard model of policing has strengths and weaknesses, but with rapid advancements the process is seeing increased benefits within conventional policing. Weisburd & Eck’s (2004) stated that police typology is two dimensional, diversity of approach and level of focus. Standard policing lacks empirical support, instead the focus should be on police practice that is tailored and expanded beyond standardisation within law enforcement would be more beneficial (Sherman 1997). The standard model strategies of the traditional police approaches to dealing with crime were developed largely during the reform or professional era in the 1930s, the standards are the strength and basis of the conventional police force ( Kelling & Moore 1998).
Rapids response covered through call centres triage system. Reactive policing is important but a balance of police strategy needs to be considered and assessed by police agencies (Drew & Prenzler 2015). Classical theory of crime deterrence is by certainty, severity, swiftness of punishment and incapacitation.
Standard model of patrol policing includes investigating, traffic policing, emergency assistance and management, missing persons, court security, risky evictions, death notices, random breath testing and dragnets and licensing checks.
Legal power to arrest citizens for indictable crimes or to depend others or themselves with proportionate force. Specific police powers differ for each incident, in an accident or crime scene the police have power to direct, stop suspects, search, question name and address if under reasonable suspicion (Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000).
Police have legal authority to constrain a suspect if a assault for example is committed.
Police have multiple activities, 10% calls for service represent law enforcement, which includes arrests and burglary in progress. 22% information gathering covers, routine questioning in relation to crime and paperwork which includes filling out forms. 30% order maintenance which includes family and neighbour disputes or troubles. Finally 38% of an officers activity is taken up through service calls (Wilson 1968). An estimated 43% of time spent at the station is taken up with paperwork.
Alleged false assumptions include faster response equals less crime, more police equals less crime, more visible police equals less crime. Community satisfaction depends on perceived expectations in response to faster response times. Witness and victim statements consume police response times in relation to solving crimes.
Foot patrol outcomes don’t is a reduction in crime, however statistics show that people feel safer if they see police around. Public response is positive to police foot patrols. Optimising patrols provide adequate response to the public while engaging in scientific crime reduction. Optimising patrols through crew sizes, shift lengths, triage priorities, reduced public expectations, delaying responses to non critical call outs, offload of non core tasks and prevention of false alarms,
The Limitations of Conventional Policing Methods including prevention patrols. Between calls for service, officers are expected to randomly cruise neighbourhoods doing prevention patrols to deter crime. Prevention patrols decrease citizens fears that the police are deterring offenders by their presence. While this may increase the public’s feeling of safety, research shows no significant difference in criminal activity when patrols are present. Rapid Response suggests that responding quickly to the scene of an incident increases the police’s ability to catch the offender. Victim assistance response is more accurate when information is received quickly after the crime was committed. Calls for service are dispatched quickly with new technology, which has improved response time (Kelling and Moore (1998).
Women were excluded in the police force historically because they were considered as physically weaker than males. Male police, citizens and academic observatory bodies said that women brought a softer and different mindset and values to the force, but felt that women were unsuited to the physicality of conventional policing (Worden 1993). In conventional recruitment it’s not just size and strength that is taken into consideration. Strengths in conventional policing comes from a better more rounded recruitment process. Psychological tests, job analysis, integrity checks, higher education, equity & affirmative action, representative selection committees and civilianisation are all part of the recruitment criteria. Even with advancements in the recruitment process, police officers still need ongoing psychological checks. Proactive mental health support is a the main process and benefits attributed to advanced models of policing.
Politicians and the community reaction to crime is to increase police numbers. The police to population ratio is an objective measure to weather the police numbers are sufficient to fulfil the policing mandate (Drew & Prenzler 2010). A methodological and statistical rigour to understanding the addition of police numbers in reducing crimes rates is analysed in police data (Marvell & Moody 1996). Each additional police officer added to larger cities with an average population of 250,000 reduced the crime rate by 24 fewer crimes (Sherman 1997).
Weaknesses in conventional policing is represented by miscarriages of justice, negligent investigations, failure to prosecute, vindictive investigations/prosecutions, excessive/inadequate penalties and wrongful convictions. Low crime conviction rates in Australia of 4% crimes and imprisonment rate of 1% is not going to reduce recidivism (Mukherjee 1987). Positive effective reforms through community policing through consultations and liaison officers is seeing policies and procedures for alternatives to arrest and detention. This helps with community engagement and increased community and police safety through reduction of escalating situations.
Advanced techniques & systems integrate mixed teams, multi-tasking and specialist agencies. Interviewing has ethical values and is completed with preparation, respect, non coercive voice and assistance for welfare assistance if required. The main process and benefits attributed to advanced models are developing in the technical modern era. Technological advancements for interviews are that they are recorded with modern equipment which will preserve the evidence and case material long term, incase of cold cases or future evidence.
Advanced models of policing now include cold case units, independent forensic science units, independent forensic unit accreditation & auditing, media management, case auditing (quality control, criminal case review commissions, victim & witness communication and computer alerts for victim contacts (Drew & Prenzler 2015).
Contemporary police practice includes community policing, hot spot policing, third party policing and problem orientated policing. Community policing strength is the relationship between procedural justice and police legitimacy and reduced crime outcomes (Sherman & Eck 2002). Weaknesses of community policing is the agencies don’t have a clear understanding of expected outcomes. Community officers need to be more excepted by police, they are working to help them after all. Advanced models of problem orientated policing (POP) is attributing to a better analysis and problem solving in repose to crime reduction outcomes.
With advanced models of hot spot policing the main process is attributing to strengthing the police force but has weaknesses in the approach. Spatial displacement is the main weakness or criticism observed from hot spot policing. The criminals simply move on to another area. The strength of hot spot policing is employing officers to specific crime locations. Advanced models show that specific times of high crime concentration of police officers will reduce crimes committed.
Third party policing builds on police development by adopting partnerships. Third party policing is strengthening the police force through legal, civil and regulators, seeing a positive outcome specifically in controlling drugs, violent crime and youth associated problems ( Mazerolle & Ransley 2006).
The main process and benefits attributed to advanced models for investigating are prioritisation through a triage system to utilise police resources effectively. Investigation of crime has become a formal and major role in policing. The investigation detective units are a positive focus away from private prosecutions to modern prosecutions (Matassa & Newburn 2007). The strength in prosecuting crimes is due to the switch from civil law to modern criminal law. The weakness of detective investigation units is corruption, deterring honest police from applying to join the detective units.
Police diversity within diverse communities are often divided by race, ethnicity, location, social status and gender. The police are challenged to the task of egalitarian and being impartial. Subordinate statue can seem vulnerable, such as homeless people. The weakness is police oppression which is a reoccurring problem amongst minority’s, for example race riots. Racism and discrimination by police within communities shows marginalised groups have less respect for police, as they feel targeted and reserve more attention. In the year 2000, an American survey concluded that support for police from white people was 64 percent but support from African Americans was only 37 percent (Gabbidon & Greene p. 117, 2013).
Improving and strengthening relationships between police and minority’s is coming from the formulation of respect and continuation of programs on both sides, community support and police training.
Recruitment management and leadership effectiveness is essential for conventional police reputation and functioning. Weaknesses occur when the wrong officers are selected for a specific police function which he or she isn’t trained for or hasn’t got the will to authority to do the job correctly. With a large amount of people applying for the police force the strength of officers both physically, psychological and educational makes the selection of recruits of a higher standard level (Kumar 2009). Human resource management is main key process and benefits attribute to advanced models if conventional policing.
Accountability and regulation are proactively adopting new systems and performance measures in conventional police practice. Weakness in accountability was seen throughout the 1980’s with misconduct scandals. Strengthening accountability through new systems and performance criteria is controlling the process more proactively. Police are accountable when on duty and obliged to be responsible and liable. Strengthening in regulations is seeing better control, management, compliance, mitigation, performance measures,standards, strategies and restraint within the conventional force (Prenzler 2019).
The Australian Government Productivity Commission (2018) stated that on average of 82% of people were satisfied with police services and 74% of people agreed that police treat people fairly.
In concluding standard model of policing strengths benefit from increased visibility which is a general deterrence of crime through foot patrols and motorised patrols. Support systems for victims and families are provided through follow up investigations, for example a domestic violence case. Weaknesses include risk of racial profiling and lack of community involvement. Strategic programs are strengthening police approaches to crime with technological advancements. Progress is slow but being made in achieving an optimistic approach to the future if policing.
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