1. British civil service workers in executive positions live longer than those in clerical positions. This best illustrates the value of: A) emotion-focused coping. B) the general adaptation syndrome. C) spontaneous remission. D) perceived control. 2. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers experience: A) higher rates of depression and higher rates of divorce. B) lower rates of depression and lower rates of divorce. C) lower rates of depression and higher rates of divorce. D) higher rates of depression and lower rates of divorce. 3. People who are constantly dieting place themselves at risk for depression and risk for binge eating. A) increased; decreased B) decreased; decreased C) increased; increased D) decreased; increased 4. If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle. A) underestimate; underestimate B) overestimate; underestimate C) underestimate; overestimate D) overestimate; overestimate 5. Imitating another person’s facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate: A) parasympathetic nervous system activity. B) the feel-good, do-good phenomenon. C) an empathic response. D) the catharsis of aggressive feelings. 6. Aerobic exercise is associated with: A) increased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins. B) increased levels of serotonin and decreased levels of the endorphins. C) decreased levels of serotonin and decreased levels of the endorphins. D) decreased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins. 7. The defense mechanism in which selfjustifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is: A) displacement. B) rationalization. C) projection. D) reaction formation. 8. By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans o reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will: A) experience a decrease in her feelings of hunger. B) have a lower set point for body weight. C) have a lower fat cell count. D) have a lower resting metabolic rate. 9. Ader and Cohen observed that suppressed immune system functioning in rats was a(n) to saccharin-sweetened water. A) conditioned response (CR) B) unconditioned response (UR) C) conditioned stimulus (CS) D) unconditioned stimulus (US) 10. Luigi minimized the stress of testing positive for HIV by viewing this circumstance as an opportunity for a renewed religious commitment and spiritual growth.
His reaction best illustrates the importance of: A) stress appraisal. B) Biofeedback C) spontaneous remission. D) the Type A personality. 11. Stress is most likely to speed the progression from HIV to AIDS by: A) slowing the shortening of telomeres. B) increasing the release of glucocorticoids. C) accelerating the enlargement of the thymus gland. D) increasing the production of lymphocytes. 12. Teens are more likely to experiment with tobacco if they: A) are not concerned about how others perceive them. B) see actors smoking in movies. C) feel in control of their future. D) engage in problem-focused coping. 13. Young teens are most likely to start smoking in order to: A) reduce their mental alertness. B) reduce their blood pressure. C) trigger the release of lymphocytes. D) gain social acceptance. 14. When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his: A) ego. B) Oedipus complex. C) superego. D) id. 15. Personality is fruitfully studied at multiple levels of analysis because people are best understood as: A) demonstrating self-serving bias. B) unconscious information processors. C) possessing enduring traits. D) biopsychosocial organisms. 16. Logan is an unsuccessful businessman who feels little satisfaction with life. In order to increase his subjective well-being, Logan should: A) recall past moments when his life was much more pleasant than it is now. B) imagine what his own life might be like if he became rich and famous. C) imagine what his life might be like if he were suffering from a fatal disease. D) compare himself with friends who became rich and successful. 17. A psychologist would most likely use biofeedback to provide clients with information about their: A) blood type. B) genetic makeup. C) cholesterol level. D) muscle tension. 18. One study of migraine headache patients found that the majority of those who received “sham acupuncture” enjoyed relief. The patients’ pain relief is most likely attributable to: A) the placebo effect. B) a decrease in lymphocyte production. C) an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. D) problem-focused coping. 19. Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of: A) the spotlight effect. B) an internal locus of control. C) self-serving bias. D) social influence. 20. A psychotherapist suggests that Theresa can effectively reduce the anger she feels toward her ex-boyfriend by tearing pictures of him into little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on the: A) James-Lange theory. B) catharsis hypothesis. C) two-factor theory. D) adaptation-level principle. 21. The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of than does the James-Lange theory. A) physiological arousal B) Catharsis C) subjective well-being D) cognitive activity 22. Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be: A) preconscious. B) unconscious. C) displaced. D) fixated. 23. When faced with an ever-increasing number of consumer product choices, people often experience the discomfort of: A) the spotlight effect. B) self-serving bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) information overload. 24. Which of the following have been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague and subjective? A) terror-management theorists B) social-cognitive theorists C) trait theorists D) humanistic theorists 25. For purposes of lie detection, investigators have most commonly made use of a(n): A) electroencephalograph. B) polygraph. C) electrocardiograph. D) myograph. 26. Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud’s assumption that women: A) suffer an Electra complex. B) have stronger sexual instincts than men. C) never experience a phallic stage of development. D) have weak superegos. 27. Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by: A) interpreting their flattering self-descriptions as a self-serving bias. B) using projective tests to assess their motives. C) selectively studying people with qualities he admired. D) overemphasizing the value of their loyalty to cultural norms. 28. A person who experiences defensive self-esteem is to demonstrate self-serving bias and is to feel angry when criticized. A) likely; likely B) unlikely; unlikely C) unlikely; likely D) likely; unlikely 29. The results of early research on biofeedback were surprising because they indicated that people could learn to control bodily functions regulated by the: A) cerebellum. B) frontal lobes. C) autonomic nervous system. D) lymph glands. 30. The text defines stress as: A) physical, emotional, or mental exhaustion. B) the experience of conflicting motives that produce anxiety and tension. C) the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges. D) the blocking of an attempt to reach some important goal. 31. Employees who have just been laid off are asked questions that encourage them to express hostility toward their employer. Research suggests that this opportunity to vent anger will: A) lead them to perceive their employer’s actions as unavoidable. B) rechannel their anger into constructive motivation. C) increase their hostility. D) calm their emotions and reduce their anger. 32. A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient’s fear is best understood in terms of the: A) two-factor theory. B) catharsis hypothesis. C) adaptation-level phenomenon. D) James-Lange theory. 33. Research participants came to anticipate the movements of the numeral 6 on a computer screen even though they were unable to identify the rule governing its movements. This best illustrates: A) repression. B) the self-reference phenomenon. C) nonconscious learning. D) the spot light effect. 34. As people experience negative emotions: A) the left prefrontal cortex becomes less electrically active. B) the right prefrontal cortex becomes more electrically active. C) the right prefrontal cortex becomes less electrically active. D) the left prefrontal cortex becomes more electrically active. 35. Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as: A) problem-focused coping. B) emotion-focused coping. C) the general adaptation syndrome. D) biofeedback. 36. Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most closely related to one’s level of creativity? A) Conscientiousness B) emotional stability C) Extraversion D) Openness 37. Research suggests that monkeys reared in the wild fear snakes because they: A) have a particularly strong nervous system reaction to snake bites. B) have encountered snakes near dead monkeys. C) have observed other monkeys’ fearful reactions to snakes. D) are biologically predisposed to fear nearly all primitive forms of life. 38. People tend to their daily caloric intake and their daily physical activity. A) overestimate; overestimate B) overestimate; underestimate C) underestimate; underestimate D) underestimate; overestimate 39. People who become blind eventually experience levels of day-to-day happiness. Those who become paralyzed eventually experience levels of day-to-day happiness. A) below-normal; above-normal B) above-normal; above-normal C) near-normal; near-normal D) above-normal; below-normal 40. One night after he heard his parents arguing, 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake.
A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei’s dream reflects a(n): A) Oedipus complex. B) selfserving bias. C) oral fixation. D) reaction formation. 41. Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cell phone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive: A) personality. B) collective unconscious. C) fixation. D) attributional style. 42. Confiding one’s fears and frustrations to supportive friends is likely to lymphocyte levels and cortisol levels. A) increase; decrease B) increase; increase C) decrease; increase D) decrease; decrease 43. B lymphocytes inhibit , whereas T lymphocytes inhibit . A) the release of epinephrine; the release of cortisol B) viruses; cancer cells C) bacterial infections; viral infections D) telomeres; glucocorticoids 44. Professor Lindstrom emphasized that obesity often involves the interactive influence of high set points, low perceived control, and the ready availability of calorie-laden junk food.
The professor’s emphasis best illustrates: A) a biopsychosocial approach. B) an optimistic explanatory style. C) biofeedback. D) the general adaptation syndrome. 45. Research on stressful life events indicates that: A) survivors of a natural disaster are immunized against stress and have fewer long-term health problems. B) those who live a relatively peaceful, monastic life actually suffer a higher-than-average rate of heart attacks. C) those who have been recently widowed or divorced are more vulnerable to disease and death. D) all of the above are true. 46. One way for people to improve their own subjective well-being is to: A) participate in regular aerobic exercise. B) overestimate how much they can accomplish. C) focus more attention on themselves. D) do all of the above. 47. People who are challenged by physical disabilities are likely to maintain normal levels of self-esteem by: A) accepting as much personal responsibility for their problems as for their accomplishments. B) displacing their feelings of resentment. C) developing an external locus of control. D) comparing themselves with others who are similarly disabled. 48. Research on selfperception indicates that most people: A) view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others. B) underestimate the accuracy of their beliefs and judgments. C) are unrealistically pessimistic about their personal future. D) feel more personally responsible for their failures than for their successes. 49. Programs that successfully discourage young people from smoking are likely to train them how to: A) refuse others’ persuasive appeals to smoke. B) use nicotine gum to satisfy drug cravings. C) increase their consumption of high-carbohydrate foods. D) reduce stress by means of biofeedback. 50. As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the nervous system. A) Somatic B) Central C) Sympathetic D) Parasympathetic 51. Surveys of subjective well-being in 82 countries indicate that the two countries with the highest levels of self-reported happiness are: A) Canada and the Netherlands. B) Ireland and Switzerland. C) The United States and Australia. D) Puerto Rico and Mexico. 52. According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are and . A) cognitive labels; physical arousal B) physical arousal; overt behavior C) facial expressions; cognitive labels D) emotion-arousing events; physical arousal 53. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system respiration and salivation. A) increases; decreases B) decreases; decreases C) decreases; increases D) increases; increases 54. Larry studies diligently because he is haunted by an image of himself being unable to get a job after graduation.
Larry’s diligence best illustrates the motivational impact of: A) possible selves. B) an internal locus of control. C) the spotlight effect. D) unconditioned positive regard. 55. Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates: A) the spotlight effect. B) self-serving bias. C) the Barnum effect. D) learned helplessness. 56. Jed wants his roommate Dante to help him study for a physics test. Dante is most likely to want to help after he has: A) heard that a friend was involved in an automobile accident. B) been caught cheating on a math test. C) received an “A” on his psychology test. D) helped some friends repair a flat tire on their car. 57. In North America since the 1960s, the death rate due to coronary heart disease has , and the death rate due to smoking-related cancer has . A) decreased; decreased B) increased; decreased C) decreased; increased D) increased; increased 58. Who suggested that “we feel sorry because we cry . . afraid because we tremble”? A) Walter Cannon B) Stanley Schachter C) Richard Lazarus D) William James 59. Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other.
They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another’s: A) lips. B) hand gestures. C) body postures. D) eyes. 60. A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is: A) epinephrine. B) testosterone. C) insulin. D) acetylcholine. 61. Which of the following best explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections? A) Stress hormones facilitate the depositing of cholesterol and fat around the heart. B) Stress hormones suppress the production of lymphocytes. C) Stress hormones trigger the release of digestive acids. D) Stress hormones accelerate the “hardening” of the arteries. 62. A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of: A) extraversion. B) openness. C) conscientiousness. D) emotional stability. 63. Research has shown that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences. This finding supports the: A) James-Lange theory. B) catharsis hypothesis. C) adaptation-level principle. D) Cannon-Bard theory. 64. While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades.
A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professor’s treatment of students as an example of: A) regression. B) projection. C) reaction formation. D) displacement. 65. According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among: A) id, ego, and superego. B) thoughts, emotions, and actions. C) learned helplessness, locus of control, and optimism. D) behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events. 66. The stability of personality traits is best illustrated by the consistency of: A) the self-reference phenomenon. B) expressive styles. C) unconditional positive regard. D) the Barnum effect. 67. Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called: A) the spotlight effect. B) external locus of control. C) fixation. D) self-serving bias. 68. Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are least likely to be highly: A) self-accepting. B) conforming. C) compassionate. D) religious. 69. As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair’s heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her nervous ystem. A) Central B) Somatic C) Parasympathetic D) Sympathetic 70. According to the , you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousals. A) James-Lange theory B) catharsis hypothesis C) Cannon-Bard theory D) two-factor theory 71. Research on obesity and weight control indicates that: A) lean tissue is maintained by fewer calories than is fat tissue. B) overweight people typically suffer from a lack of willpower and self-discipline. C) no matter how carefully people diet, they can never lose fat cells. D) when an obese person has lost weight, a diet and exercise program are no longer necessary for maintaining the lower weight. 72. Wild animals placed in zoos sometimes die shortly thereafter. These deaths are likely to result from a(n) in the animals’ production of . A) increase; androgens B) decrease; cortisol C) increase; serotonin i decrease; lymphocytes 73. Which of the following is an example of biofeedback? A) Jane decides to quit smoking after seeing a film linking cigarettes with cancer. B) Kecia successfully quits smoking after her psychologist has her smoke so rapidly she cannot tolerate another cigarette. C) Milos learns to relax by being provided with information on changes in his heart rate. D) Chico learns to lower his blood pressure by meditating twice a day. 74. The health risks associated with obesity are generally the greatest for those who carry their excess weight around their: A) hips. B) bellies. C) thighs. D) buttocks. 75. A general sense of happiness or life satisfaction is most unrelated to whether people: A) have a meaningful religious faith. B) have a happy marriage. C) sleep well. D) are well educated. 76. The two-factor theory of emotion would have difficulty explaining why a: A) person automatically fears snakes even though he thinks they are attractive and harmless. B) person comes to fear snakes after he sees someone else bitten by one. C) person’s fear of snakes is reduced after she learns that most snakes are harmless. D) person’s fear of snakes is reduced after she receives a calming tranquilizer. 77. Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates: A) the false consensus effect. B) defensive self-esteem. C) learned helplessness. D) the spotlight effect. 78. Rannilt was euphoric after learning that she had been accepted by the medical school of her choice. After a few weeks, however, she is only mildly excited when she thinks about her admission to medical school.
This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of the: A) adaptation-level phenomenon. B) feel-good, do-good phenomenon. C) catharsis hypothesis. D) relative deprivation principle. 79. In rejecting claims that personality trait measures fail to predict behavior effectively, Seymour Epstein emphasized the importance of: A) factor analysis. B) projective tests. C) reciprocal determinism. D) multiple behavior assessments. 80. A psychophysiological illness is: A) any psychological disorder that has a genetic component. B) a disease of the central nervous system. C) any physical illness that produces a psychological disorder. D) a stress-related physical illness such as hypertension. 81. The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the: A) limbic system. B) parasympathetic nervous system. C) immune system. D) sympathetic nervous system. 82. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol: A) accelerate the buildup of plaques on artery walls. B) decrease heart rate and blood pressure. C) divert blood flow from muscle tissue to the body’s internal organs. D) are released by the thymus and lymph glands. 83. Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it’s easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by: A) the Barnum effect. B) the self-reference phenomenon. C) an external locus of control. D) reciprocal determinism. 84. The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they: A) experience a more positive self-image. B) report greater satisfaction with their whole lives. C) make decisions more effectively. D) are more willing to help others. 85. The subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to the prevention and treatment of illness is known as: A) behavioral psychology. B) psychobiology. C) health psychology. D) medical psychology. 86. Research on the nonverbal expression of emotion indicates that: A) it is difficult to use nonverbal cues to mislead others about one’s true emotions. B) accurately identifying emotional facial expressions in people from different cultures requires personal experience with those cultures. C) the body movements and gestures used to express emotions are the same throughout the world. D) introverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others. 87. Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control weakens following: A) unconditional positive regard. B) the spotlight effect. C) an exertion of energy. D) the self-reference phenomenon. 88. Scientists have isolated a gene that influences the amygdala’s response to frightening situations. People with a short version of this gene have high levels of available to activate amygdala neurons. A) Endorphins B) Acetylcholine C) Serotonin D) Dopamine 89. Researchers attempt to understand emotions using biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis. The psychological level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize the importance of: A) evolutionary adaptiveness. B) facial expressiveness. C) arousal. D) cognitive labeling. 90. The adaptationlevel phenomenon refers to the: A) tendency for emotional release to reduce levels of physiological arousal. B) tendency for evolution to favor organisms that adapt best to the environment. C) tendency for standards of judgment to be heavily influenced by previous experiences. D) perception that one is worse off than those with whom one compares oneself. 91. People tend to describe their experienced emotions along the two dimensions of: A) expressiveness and meaningfulness. B) valence and arousal. C) physical and social. D) clarity and stability. 92. The spillover effect is best explained in terms of the: A) two-factor theory. B) relative deprivation principle. C) catharsis hypothesis. D) adaptation-level principle. 93. Haley’s parents bought her a used bicycle for her birthday. She was thrilled until she learned that her best friend received a brand new bicycle on her birthday. Haley’s declining satisfaction illustrates the: A) facial feedback effect. B) catharsis hypothesis. C) relative deprivation principle. D) adaptation-level phenomenon. 94. Aging women who had experienced prolonged stress as caregivers for children with serious disorders experienced a premature decrease in the size of their: A) lymphocytes. B) adrenal glands. C) frontal lobes. D) telomeres. 95. Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit: A) an inferiority complex. B) an Electra complex. C) the self-reference phenomenon. D) passive dependence. 96. In the United States, Canada, and Britain, smoking has become rare among those who: A) experience obesity. B) are highly educated. C) are recent immigrants. D) have parents who smoke. 97. Contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider to be of pivotal importance to personality. A) the collective unconscious B) the sense of self C) the superego D) unconditional positive regard 98. Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children’s feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children.
Her approach to parentchild interaction was most explicitly recommended by: A) Jung. B) Rogers. C) Bandura. D) Allport. 99. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, body arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the: A) parasympathetic nervous system. B) thalamus. C) cortex. D) hypothalamus. 100. Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. This finding best serves to support the: A) James-Lange theory. B) Cannon-Bard theory. C) catharsis hypothesis. D) adaptation-level principle.
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