In Europe throughout the 17th and 18th century, philosophers and well-educated people assembled to discuss religious, political, economic and social questions that have warped our society today. With the discoveries of many more scientific inventions, soon civilization began to question the ways of functioning in society. Many thinkers of the time period believed that natural laws should be applied to governing and economic motions. Isaac Newton was an inspiration for the time period, he proved the force of gravity and the believed that people behaviors were a law of nature and if people were observant then they could have discovered the laws. This forced most of society to built laws on reason and scientific methods instead of God or the church.
Many people thrived to explain how people behaved based on the universe which spread like fire and so did the valid opinions. John Locke, Voltaire, Adam Smith, and Mary Wollstonecraft entertained the idea of freedom through society, each writing about a different area of the changed the public perspective on economics, politics, social roles, and religion through their literature. Each trying to use natural laws to guide their logic and reason to why our nation should have individual rights.
John Locke wrote perhaps one the most powerful pieces on individual liberty of his time mostly about people's rights and the government. Throughout his writing, he argued that human beings relished what he called "perfect freedom" they enjoyed their properties and themselves and could do whatever they'd like. The Philosopher states in his book known as the "Second Treatise on Civil Government," that all men are in " a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose [manage] of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature" (Document A). The essence of his beliefs is the progressive sentiment of individual liberty and private property. He further discusses that this right of freedom is subjected to and for all men.
That no person should violate another man's rights as they are equal among each other. Additionally, Locke was a strong believer that society has the natural right to overthrow a government if it fails. This can lead mean the abuse of power which many leaders in history have executed aimlessly. He says that society has the right to preserve itself, not only to get out of a failed system but to prevent it as well through a settled legislative and laws. The legislative does not need to change before the rejection of government is justified, revolution can occur before the legislative is altered. Essentially John Locke Main Idea was freedom, more liberty the right of society to do what they please with themselves and their properties as long it does not undermine another man with equal right. Also the ability to have security from a failed regime, and that society should be more involved with government politics.
The social role of women and religions is discussed through Voltaire and Mary Wollstonecraft. They strengthen the idea of freedom but through the aspects of choosing a religion, and women who should have the right it participates in society. Voltaire explains that everyone has a right to choose their own religions and beliefs, this usually resorts in multiple religions and practices within a country. The philosopher believes that because there are so many different types of religions that is the only way society functions correctly. The leading historical supporter writes in the book "Letters Concerning the English Nation," that the religions have "such a multitude, they all live happy and in peace" (Document B).
He elaborates in the next paragraph that if there was only one religion allowed the "government would very possibly become arbitrary" but if there were two practices allowed "the people would cut one another's throats." Multiple religions reject the idea of dominance or competition, and that encouraging people to follow their beliefs allows them personal freedom and contributes to the tranquility of society. Voltaire indicates that Royal Exchange (trading center) holds representatives of all nations that meet and act as they all professed the same religion to benefit society. Mary Wollstonecraft believes in order to profit society it is important that all genders should be free to participate in society. She stresses the importance of equal education and social roles between men and women. The British author writes in " A Vindictive of the Rights of Women" that for women to be free of resentment they "must be allowed to found their virtue on knowledge, which is scarcely possible unless they be educated by the same pursuits[studies] of men they would quickly become wise and virtuous. In the past, women weren't seen as equals.
Their duties were mostly based to please men because they were not as smart, or well educated. Wollstonecraft suggests that they would be worthy enough to exercise their right like human beings if they received a right to learning, to establish equality among the community. Society and religion go hand in hand due to the impact of religious practice on social stability. During the Age of Reason these boundaries were broken, it was not based on religion anymore but the laws and phenomenon of nature. The correlations between the topics share the idea of freedom as well as individual rights.
A country's rank or dominance is based on the success of the country's economy. Among the Period of Enlightenment, it became clear to Adam Smith how Important the freedom of choice can be economically for a functioning society. He teaches that no one is really qualified to be deciding economical decisions, even a ruler or government.
Most individuals work in order provide for themselves or a potential family. But the human desire to gain economical successful in order to survive and prosper is what fuels and runs the economy. This view on the economy was quite a shock in view of the fact that most common economic system was mercantilism which only provided the mother country's wealth. Adam Smith wrote in his book, "The Wealth Of Nations" that ruler is completely unqualified to make economical settlements because "no human wisdom or knowledge could ever be sufficient - the duty of superintending [guiding] the industry of private people, and of directing it towards ... the interest the society" (Document C).
It is just unreasonable for a ruler who has no knowledge of material costs and the labor hours to build something. so it would be unreasonable for a ruler who breathes a luxurious life to set prices for the people. Adam Smith suggests that society should leave things to happen naturally, individuals should make economic judgments and furthermore, have a voice in the government. Mankind will always have an instinct driving them to survive which ensures the safety and the security of the economy as long as they laborers are giving a choice.
The Philosophers unleashed a truly unforgettable event in history. Each different philosophers focused on a specific idea, John Locke supported individuals free in the matter of government. Voltaire upheld the concept of a person's freedom through the practice of religion. Adam Smith debated humankind's freedom in the say of the economy. And Mary Wollstonecraft fought for the freedom through the education and equality of both genders.
The Enlightenment was the root of numerous notions of the American Revolution. It was a movement that focused mostly on the freedom of choice, equality, the people's involvement with the government, and religious tolerance that helped build the system of the United States of America.
That Document that helped most to create the essay was Document A. The excerpt is a primary sources document that was written by John Locke in 1690 and anonymously published in London. The book was targeted at the general public to inform and persuade of John Locke's philosophical belief. The format of this document if a book because it was an efficient and most common way to inform the community through writing. The book preaches the state of nature which involved, the government or rulers, and society, more specifically each individual. It speaks of a belief that humans should be free to do with there possessions and themselves as they please as long as they stay within the boundaries of the natural law and do not subject other. John Locke explained that all men are equal and deserving of this basic human right.
As well as the right to dissolve a failed government or preventing it all together by having a voice in society. The author is obviously very observant of nature and his environment to have the ability to write such a philosophy. This was based during the enlightenment period which is nothing out of the ordinary since that is when many reasons and concepts stem from in history. The author proposes the idea that people are equal and should be more involved in the government. substantially given more freedom to a person and the general public. The author is quite persuasive and logically explains with reason why his "theory" is ideal and righteous.
This piece is based on fact and not on religion, it pushing boundaries of the past that had commonly set opinion. It is unknown which observation of nature caused this natural human law. Also, it is impossible to verify this information as it based on logic and a written theory. There is no history or event in the excerpt that can cause a need for verification. John Locke does not mention a possible execution to his system. Which steps that should be taken install this into the lives of the people.
A professional writer will make a clear, mistake-free paper for you!Get help with your assignment
Please check your inbox
I'm Chatbot Amy :)
I can help you save hours on your homework. Let's start by finding a writer.Find Writer