The gallant and fertile Australian women’s rights crusade was primarily glimpsed from the mid-1800’s to 1900’s, was a lurid event as females marred the normality of then society to address the inequality of rudimentary human rights between the sexes- indomitably occurring within a concurrent timeline with North America despite the delay in the construction of a community within the continent. The Women’s Liberation or feminist movement in Australia has unambiguously targeted the inequality amongst pay, domestic violence, sexual harassment, sexual violence and the reproductive rights effectively achieving equal treatment in theory of the democratic process however the patronising reality is still drastically different within Western Society as a large majority of feminine individuals are dominated by male figures and social expectations of women (Turner-Graham, 2009). As an extension of feminism, the complex, frequent and peevish debate surrounding the status of Muslim women cannot simply be compacted into the accepted categories of western feminism and is now beyond the administration of venerable scriptural sources, rather being ingrained by the cultural and highly-pious social heritages of gender-roles determined by previous generations.
Habitually, the debate relating towards Muslim women and the general Islamic communities located in Australia is an exemplification of the irreconcilable relationship between the Western society, relaying empty parodies of promises to entice an audience, and Islam, a religion devout in submission and consecration towards the higher deity of ‘Allah’. A glance globally across the thousands of Islam communities situated internationallyincluding Australia- advocates a substantial degree of diversity in regard to the perfunctory action of consideration for men and women alike, with the systematic oppression and discrimination of women being present amongst extremist groups such as the Taliban and Al-Qaeda which emerged solely due to cultural and moral differentiation from the original interpretation of sacred texts (Oum, 2018). Transnationally, populations of ubiquitous Muslims are currently advocating the capability of Islam and its education to cease the relegation of women within private sectors plus the usurp distortion of forgotten heritage and Psalms caused by despotic governments and the partisan fanatics, to deliver an equal, positive and empowering society for the collection of genders as the Qur’an belligerently exasperated to convey (Carland, 2017). According to usage, women to have rights over men similar to the rights of men over women., Men will have a share of what they earn, and women will have a share of what they earn. and O mankind! Fear your Lord Who (initiated) your creation from a single soul, then from it created its mate, and from these two spread (the creation of) countless men and women. are autocratic paradigms of primary quotes from the Qur’an bequeathing a consummated haven emphasising gender equality and a feministic outlook as an essential component of the jurisprudence and fundamental teachings of Islam: unambiguously, through the notion expounding the creation of both sexes from a single entity, implying that no man nor woman are conferred to be deprived due to gender or duties furthermore with the dismissal that women are obligated to burden the financial responsibilities to ensure fulfilment of the family household (Qur’an, 4:32), (Qur’an, 2:228), (Qur’an, 4:1). The one-dimensional portrayal of Islamic views on women’s rights created by Western, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant (WASP) societies presently dominates current perspective of how society, explicitly Christianity, understands the essentially liberating union between ‘Allah’ and females that secure domestic tranquillity, justice and union between humanity.
The Byzantine basis of the censorious religion baptized as Christianity is formed via power relations, gender roles, social structures, moral frameworks, functions of family and cultural symbolisms, often reducing the indispensable topic of ‘women’s rights within Islam’ into an overzealous, abridged argument. The Protestant churches desperately attempts to fit the square peg of a non-idealistic cultural, customary set of rubrics into the round hole of the typecast which Western society desperately attempts to dogmatically enforce upon the other reverent world religions. This is evident on the widespread, communal view that the burqa or hijab (The conventionally religious headdress of Islam) acts as A symbolic representation of oppression and discrimination due to the claustrophobic essence which promotes public shame upon the female figure while adversely advertising any portion of a female’s body as sexual, in some cases the eyes are additionally sexualised. (Belltower, 2018). Islamic feminists, the majority of whom are actually administrated by a religion other than Islam (largely Christianity or atheism), challenge the traditional interpretational mechanisms of Islamic feministic rights through the prejudiced translation that the Qur’anic principles endorse violence and oppression towards women while simultaneously suggesting egalitarianismmounted originally via the textual authority of Islamic religious scriptures (Delong-Bas, 2018). Yet despite the irritatingly common advocacy for gender equality in other religion, Christianity itself has yet to rectify or release statements making amendments to the oppressive literature heritage coursing through their ‘holy’ veins. In comparison to the harshness of both Roman law and medieval society present in the initial opening years of the church, Christianity mitigated the inequality of then society however without evolution of the religion past the primal stages of development, the religious wisdoms imparted onto the malleable Christian youth have quickly become obsolete in the privilege-ridden society of the twenty first century (Cruz, 2014). Evidence is found amongst the misogynistic, oppressive passages of the bible which include statements such as I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, she must be silent., Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord. And If two men are fighting and the wife of one of them comes to rescue her husband from his assailant, and she reaches out and seizes him by his private parts, you shall cut off her hand. Show her no pity. (Deuteronomy 25:11-1), (Timothy 2:12), (Ephesians 5:22). Between the five founders of the great religions -Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Hinduismit is evident that the scintillating radicalisation of the prophet/ messiah Mohammed has become associated with the utmost venerable religious, theological text (Qur’an) that teems with tenacious empowerment to achieve liberation and equality between the femininities, in comparison to venal depiction of Jesus Christ.
From the time of abstruse infancy through to the development into motley adulthood, the sensitive treatise of morality emerges amongst an individual’s experiences and cognitive development in a verbose fashion in order to ignite change and understanding, specifically regarding values, ethics and solicitously religion. Lawrence Kohlberg expanded on the stage of psychosocial development by separating the levels of moral development into three levels with two additional, distinct portions for each level: preconventional, conventional and postconventionalhowever he has notably been criticised for a lack of cultural diversity and a strong gender bias (“Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development”, 2018). The preconventional stage of Kohlberg’s theory is defined within respective childhood periods as a child’s sense of morality and religious viewpoints are externally controlled by authorities figures and the judgement of consequences which coincide with actions; The Qur’an states that traditionally, Muslim parents are responsible for raising their children within their partisan religion via enforcing the beliefs or worship, moral qualities, vocational education and instilling a bequeath to obey ‘Allah’, Muhammed and the proselytization’s of the Qur’an (Quran: 52:21) . The conventional level bolsters the adolescence’s sense of morality by correlating intrapersonal and societal functions and relations, amplifying the internal necessity to ensure positive relations and societal order amongst a community. Once maturity is fully developed, the post conventional is reached and a human’s morality is defined by abstract principles, obscure values and an unwillingness, scepticism or rebellion against remaining a wholesome, law abiding individual with a realised sense of separation from society (Kohlberg & Power, 1981).The punishment and obedience orientation in which children typically attempt to secure the approval, admiration and mutual respect of society, is the stage in which Muslims females rarely advance past despite their correlated age due to the tribulation caused by an overwhelming social discrimination attempting to rectify the ostensible spiritual laws which protect the modesty, free will and religious sanctity of women. Kohlberg’s theory is dominated by the traditional ethical language that emphasises spartan justice, surfeit directions and the stressing of governmental laws of Australia disregarding any emphasis on relationships and responsibilities of religionessentially ignoring the feministic rights to devoted to Muslim women.
As an extension of Kohlberg’s theory on morality, Carol Gilligan proposed a stage theory of Ethical Care unambiguously for women and dissimilar to Lawrence Kohlberg, Gilligan’s theory approaches human development via reasoning to determine the factors which cause women to be ‘morally exotic’ in comparison to men. The Pre-conventional, Conventional and Post-Conventional Stage are also evident amongst the Ethic of Care theory, the divergent stages focus on exacting human needs, incubating individuality, the corroboration of the consequences coinciding with altru??sm, rescinding hurtful actions and the instillation of non-violent principals to ensure alternative methods for self-survival and solicitously the needs of others (Gilligan & J.M, 1980). By contrast to Lawrence Kohlberg’s severe philosophy, the normative framework which governs the feministic based political regime labelled ‘Ethics of Care’ determinedly endorses the equilibrium and independence of all individuals regardless of faith, while highlighting the over-reliance on the rights assigned to genders based on extremist dynamics enforcing heteronormative dynamics of relational power and partisan dependence on women. Alternatively weighing prominence on how ridiculous [ it is] to degrade, differentiate and disregard the basic rights which should ultimately be mutual between the sexes and [the] respectful treatment of Muslim women which Australian Islamic sects providefor there is no true discrimination in the Qur’an, the ill-treatment of women stems from the moral frameworks and heritage of a misogynistic person. (Oum, 2018).
The entirety of the religious creed plus the associated Holy scriptures, is governed by the set of egalitarian moral principles separating ‘right’ from aberrated invoked ‘wrong’ and regulates a person’s activities and behaviours is officially called ethics. ‘Natural Law theory’ is a theory of ethics that directly reflects the strident human nature which hopes to provide the safety of citizens, the preservation of states, religious freedom and the tranquillity of happiness of human life (Madison, Jefferson & Hamilton, 2009). Natural Law implies that ethical law is only bolstered through an indomitable connection to a higher power or ‘God’ plus the general palliative health and wellbeing of a benevolent humanity that individuals could achieve felicitous contentment and equanimity in comparison to the truculent ruling of society. There is a staunch difficulty authenticating ‘Natural Law’s’ support for Islamic women’s rights as different branches of society interpret the basis of human nature differently, an accepted ethical theory is conveyed by conservative Christians that dictates Islamic women’s rights defy traditional human nature as it forcesthe envelopment and extreme modesty of dress which is highly uncomfortable and defies the natural human behaviour. Women should have the ability to roam freely in cars or by any mode of transportas [the] Nomad homo sapiens once did and deserve freedom of choices (Belltower, 2018). However, the ethical dilemmas which Belltower’s stark quote presents is argued by the Islamic church frequently, with the basis that natural law theory irrigates the inherently selfish and immoral characteristics in lieu of developing positive propensities and tendencies through an evolutionary path predestined by ‘Allah’. A group of Islamic individuals state Limitations to equality are not recorded with the Qur’an and can be found within every religion once the scriptures are misconstrued to create circumstantial evidence of extremist practicesthe natural intention of Islam portrays [the natural order of human behaviour] by depicting men and women as inherently equal. (Oum,2018).
Situational ethics rejects the ‘prefabricated decisions and prescriptive rules’ that supposedly define the conscience of individuals, anthropologically deciding that no universal moral rules or rights can apply to each unique situation, indoctrinating that each ethical decision should be a consequence of flexibility rather than adhering to strict guidelines (Jackson, 2018). The casuistry of Situational ethics allows the theory to easily be differently interpreted by both religious parties and entitles each party to their predisposed, biased opinion on the rights provided to women within Islamallowing each judgement to be supported by situational ethics via default. The stress on supporting the conviction of human knowledge is drawn from situated perspectives and consequently affirming the necessity of women’s rights globally as an entire topic with the semantics of extremities and the fallacies being argued by both parties; Christianity assertively arguing for women to hastily remove their traditional donning of a headdress, to suddenly emphasise their guttural and gluttonous impurities to the world and to live by the normalities of Western society in stark comparison to the auspicious modesty and comfortability as an individual and as married woman which Islam passively promotes. In every situation regarding Islamic women’s rights, the moral and ethical decision would be the active promotion of Christianity and the equality between men and women that Jesus Christ promotes in the. Holy Bible that governs all life and tells people how to live without sin or losing their rights to terroristic organisations. Is evidence of how immoderate quotes identify extremist groups and the pacifist Muslim community as a collective is detrimental to the promotion of the human rights that passively dominate the active fight for Islamic women’s rights to be considered a rudimentary aspect of society and less of an autocratic revolution against society.
Another ethical theory is an extension of consequentialism of Utilitarianism, determining moral standpoints based on the highest mortality and morality rate present amongst the solutions to separate cases in order to protect the largest faction of the population, thus exhorting this moral reasoning as the only framework to justify military force and other mercenary’s wishing to extort a profit while limiting the fatality rate (Bedau, 1985). From an Islamic point of view, traditionally the terms haqq (truth and right), ‘adl (justice), taqwa (piety), khayr (goodness) and ma’ruf (approved) assist in the identification of whether an action is ethically performed in correlation to the Qur’an, prohibiting the extent that moral frameworks which are products of a Western understandingwith an obvious disregard for utilitarianism and other ethical frameworks, Muslims must instead follow the universal ethical values and principals imposed by the religion.
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