Over the past decade, moral, political and legal philosophers around the world became increasingly interested in understanding the concept of evil. The ascriptions of evil motivated this by journalists as they attempt to comprehend and respond to various atrocities and horrors of the past, Holocaust, and killing sprees by killers. Today, it is difficult to capture the moral significance of these acts, and their perpetrator by calling them ‘wrong.’ A concept of evil is therefore, needed. In understanding the concept, an emphasis is kept on the actions and words of the wrongdoers of the Holocaust. This is found from the documents in the Third Reich since the victims had a lot to talk about the evil deeds and actions. The paper will, therefore, focus on the Jewish diaries that were written in the midst of the Holocaust to reveal the concept of evil.Our initial focus is on the Holocaust diaries is that of Adolf Guttentag. In his seventies, Adolf lived with his wife Helena in Berlin. He fled to the United States during the onset of war in Germany in 1939.
However, there was a deportation program in the country. This was a move by the Nazi authorities who were deporting all the Berlin Jews. Adolf had a diary that recorded his thoughts during the entire period. Adolf wrote the diary with the aim of communicating to his son Otto who was living in San Francisco. Typically, the journal connotes emotional instances of the effects the Nazi authority had on the German Jews during the period. Adolf through the diary condemned the deportation by the Nazi authority as he claims it would take them to an overcrowded and unhygienic ghetto. Adolf was hoping that he was exempted from the deportation that his Jewish friends and families were going through. However, the pressure was too much for Adolf and his wife until when they decided to take their life by committing suicide. His diary dramatically fits into the Holocaust diaries as evil activities prevail all through leading to his death. The log is also related to many of the Holocaust diaries where immoral actions cause individual to make dangerous decisions in life. Another Holocaust diary is of Abraham Frieder. He was born in 1911 and died in 1945. He was an orthodox rabbi in Nove Mesto Nad Vahom, a place that was later named new Slovak.
As a leader, Abraham worked hard to improve a lot of the country’s Jews. Abraham in his diary recorded an attempt negotiation and bribe to the Nazi authority to stop the deportation program that was initiated. The diary provides an insight into the early response of Jewish leaders in Slovakia to the first news of the upcoming deportation. The diary also recounts the period in which the working group to deport individuals originated. However, several people, that were mentioned in Abraham’s diary we see them become prominent members of the working group. Despite surviving from the war, Frieder later died after the liberation. During the movement, Abraham indicates in his diary that at least 60, 000 Jews by 1942 had been deported through camps in Slovakia to the Reich where they were later all murdered in cold blood. Comparable to other Holocaust diaries, Abraham Frieder’s logs recorded a live event that occurred. It indicates a historical background full of war and other disputes. Abraham, therefore, wrote the diary to indicate the attempt made in putting to an end the evil act of deporting and killing innocent individuals.Herzl Mazia is another prominent individual who was a Palestinian Jew enrolled in the British army. He was also among the force that occupied Libya in the aftermath of the victory over the axis power in North Africa.
Unlike other Jewish diaries, Mazia’s diary is merely a combination of a travelogue and more mundane topics ranging from contemporary cinema to Jewish life post-axis North Africa. He wrote the diary mainly to document the good memories he had during his time in the air force. Herzl Mazia wrote the diary while on his trips under the air force in Libya and North Africa. Compared to other Holocaust diaries, Mazia’s journal was mainly for his memory. From the journal, it has established that Libya was a territory key to the Italian imperial project from its pre-fascists years. Still, the wicked act of deportation still prevails in his diary as he indicates the deportation of Elvira Kohn to the island of Rab found in North Africa. Generally, the primary audience of this journal was his family, where he was trying to show them the memories and experience he had from different places around the world. From the journal, the audience learns the real picture of the Holocaust diaries where the evil activities in the past were not of the concern of many individuals but only to the affected.Moryc Brajtbart was from Poland and together with his family were displaced from the country when Germany invaded Poland.
At this time, Moryc Brajtbart was only seventeen years old. During their transportation, together with his uncle and cousin, they managed to jump off the transportation track and established a refuge in the nearby Zelow. According to Moryc Brajtbart, the condition there were much better compared to their native land. While in Zelow hiding, his uncle and cousin were killed and therefore he decided to seek refuge at a different place. He then wrote the diary while a refugee is encompassing the awful events that were happening. The log contained the description of the event, from the invasion of Germany to Poland to his final refuge destination. However, he does not provide the information about his life in hiding, and the audience barely learns about Genia. The most robust motifs in his diary are the different nightmarish dream sequence. From one’s perspective, Moryc Brajtbart wrote the diary to explain to the audience the challenges individuals undergo when faced with different situations and while under refuge. Moryc Brajtbart’s diary depicts a historical background surrounded by war and conflict among communities.Finally, Saartje Wijnberg was Dutch Jewish citizen from Groningen whose diary was documented among the Holocaust diaries. Like any another individual, Saartje Wijnberg was deported from her native land to Sobibor back in 1943 while she was 21 years old.
At the moment, Sobibor was regarded as a killing center founded for the operational Reinhardt. The chances of survival were limited, and therefore Saartje Wijnberg and the husband plotted a way to escape. They managed to escape the death and seek refuge in a camp. It is here that Saartje Wijnberg decided to write a diary explaining the challenges one faces while in the camp. Saartje Wijnberg through the diary illustrated the intricacy of authorship and drawing its precise moments. In 1944, Saartje Wijnberg was pregnant and therefore recorded entries in her journal indicating the experience women underwent while in hiding. The diary target women within the society. Finally, the journal fits into the Holocaust Diaries since it was recorded while the writer is in a different situation.In conclusion, every society today is indeed surrounded by evil activities. As documented in the Holocaust Diaries, the actions often cause some psychological torture to the victims.
In this concept, the Holocaust diaries help in the understanding of the evil actions with war and challenges faced by refugees prevailing all through. According to the writers mentioned, conflict within the community was the significant hurtful act that was experienced in the past. Majority of the individuals were displaced from their home of a resident. As a result, they were often left with no alternative but to seek refuge in their neighborhood. However, they were still followed and killed while in the camps. This cause some such Adolf Guttentag to commit suicide. The Jewish diaries during the Holocaust period are indeed significant to our understanding of the past events and the effects of the events. The diaries generally convey a similar theme of war in society and challenges of refugees.
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