A healthcare system is defined as a process by which healthcare is funded, systematized, and carried to the people. It covers the issue of accessibility, costs, and funds. Basically, healthcare system aimed to improve health of the population without too much demand in financial aspect from the people. The foundation of healthcare was influenced by various factors. Uniqueness of culture and history of the people and country, various ethical values, and economic resources.
Uniqueness of the culture and history of a country is one measure of healthcare. Availability of it depends on the level of development of the nation, culture and social values. Some people put weight on preventing the disease while others focus on curing the particular illness.
Various ethical value is another factor of the healthcare structure. According to the study Reinhard Priester (1992) there is no way to resolve disagreements among the cost, quality of service and accessibility unless healthcare will be provide fairly among individuals. These values comprise respect for the independence of both patients and providers, the maximization of benefit, and the promotion of impartiality or fairness, which is understood as equality or freedom.
Economic resource is another factor on the structure of healthcare. Strong connection between available resources of a country and both healthcare spending and the proportion of the net income of a country that is provided for the healthcare is visible (Gerdtham and Jonsson, 2000). Financing of health care expenditure becomes more important especially in resource controlled countries. Even though healthcare is largely valued, less developed countries and individuals considers food, shelter and in some cases security is prioritized. Thus, providing of ample finance for health care either by the household or the government is necessary. Lacking of healthcare fund might be the reasons for the bad health outcomes in the region (Bichaka and Gutema (2008), Kaseje (2006), Jaunky and Khadaroo (2006).
Health inequalities are the methodical disparities of health status of the population groups. They arise within a scope of social status including income, social class, scarcity, social order, ethnicity and geography.
Structural theory explains the differences socioeconomic conditions of social groups cause disparities in health outcomes. These socioeconomic circumstances include differences in income, wealth, power, environment and access in health care (Krieger N, 2001). Structural theorists see competing explanation that behavior, culture and intelligence may speculate possible system connecting structural factors and health effects, but do not categorize the fundamental cause of health inequalities (Macintyre S, 1997)
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