PGD refers to the technique used by doctors in the determination of the sex of an embryo. Using this technique, doctors can influence the genetic constitution of the embryo to prevent it from disease like cystic fibroids and haemophilia. (Bostrom and Rebecca 19)
By using IVF, doctors can genetically manipulate the embryo by giving it different traits so that it grows with the desired genes. (p. 20)
Buying gametes and paying more if the donor had an Ivy League education basically means that that will pay more for genes because the donor is considered more intelligent and well educated. (Bostrom and Rebecca 21).
According to Jurgen Habermas, manipulation of the genes constitutes an infringement of the freedom of the child through ways that even normal parenting cannot do. I would advise the young couple against going for the program until they are completely sure of the avoiding the risks associated with it. (Bostrom and Rebecca 20)
In his interpretation of autonomy, Habermas is misguided since genetic factors play a significant role in what the child achieves in life irrespective of whether their genes were selected for them. (Bostrom and Rebecca 21) Sandel believes that the determination to remake nature “”fails to exemplify, and may even destroy the child. The human powers of the child, coupled with their achievements tend to be affected when the genetic constitution of the child is interfered with. (Bostrom and Rebecca 21)
In disagreeing with Sandel’s view, the authors feel that he is not convincing. Sandel fails to cite any data that supports his claims that parents would reduce their love for their children because they do not conform to their expectations. (Bostrom and Rebecca 21)
Julian defends the principle for reasons that parents’ choice of the embryos determines the kind of person who will come from the procedure. Furthermore, he claims that manipulating the genes of the embryo will give way to a child with qualities that are in contrast to the expectation of the parents. (Bostrom and Rebecca 22).
This means that when parents decide to intervene in the genetic composition of the future child, it is important to consider the best interests of the child by parents restricting themselves to qualities that benefit the child in their future lives.
The author, however disagrees because the perceived parallels between the prevailing discourse on the enhancement and the programs of coercive eugenics coercive eugenics developed in the last century may foster beliefs which would undermine human dignity. (Bostrom and Rebecca 23)
“”To try to turn a man into a more than a man might be so as well”” (Bostrom and Rebecca 24)
Fukuyama and Silver opine that by the enhanced laying more claim to human rights, the rights of the unenhanced will be taken away.
Bostrom, Nick, and Rebecca Roache. “”Ethical Issues In Human Enhancement.”” New Waves in Applied Ethics (2007): 19-24. Print.
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