Cultures Differences of Pakistan

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Culture is the pattern of behaviour that is repeated and over time it becomes a way of life for a particular group of people within a country, organization and family. However, people often fail to see how culture affect their pattern of thinking or their behaviour since most people are so strongly immersed with their own culture. To overcome this, that are many kind of suggestion in order to compare countries on cultural similarities and cultural differences across borders.

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Therefore, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions is one of the most-used and best-known framework including 6 cultural dimensions such as power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term/short-term orientation and restraint/indulgence that was introduced by Geert Hofstede.

Gerard Hendrik Hofstede or well known as Geert Hofstede was born on 02 October 1928 is a Dutch researcher in the fields of organizations studies, organizational cultural and cultural economics and management. He is also a former IBM employee and Professor Emeritus of Organizational Anthropology and International Management at Maastricht University, Netherlands known for his pioneering research on cross-cultural groups and organizations. By this, his most notable work has been in developing cultural dimensions theory along six cultural dimensions which is Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.

Hofstede’s cultural dimensions was aimed with a large database of cultural statistics. Hofstede analysed the results and found clear patterns of similarity and difference amid the responses along these six dimensions that represent independent preferences for one state of affairs over another that distinguish countries rather than individuals from each other. As the result, culture can be used meaningfully by comparison with this 6 model cultural dimensions.

First dimensions is power distance. This refer to the degree of inequality that exist and is accepted among people with and without power. A high of power distance score indicates that society accepts an unequal distribution of power and people understand their position in the hierarchical order or acknowledgement of status quo. For example, in the workplace that tend to employees acknowledge the boss’s authority and lead to centralized structure and autocratic leadership. This is because, inequalities in power are normal as evidence in hierarchical boss-subordinate relationship usually for country such as Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Mexico. While low of power distance means that power has shared and well dispersed shows the society members view themselves as equals. For example, in workplace shows superiors and subordinates are aptitude regard one another as equal in power, resulting in more harmony and cooperation such as Scandinavian countries and in New Zealand.

Second of cultural dimension is individualism/ collectivism that refers to the strength of ties people have to other within the community. Individualism define people looking after themselves and their immediate family only neglect the needs of society. Countries with high individualism score have a lack of interpersonal connection and little sharing of responsibility, beyond family and perhaps a few close friends that lead task prevails over relationship. For example, employing family member in one’s organization was labelled nepotism and disliked or seen as illegal in many organization such as United States, Great Britain and Australia. While collectivism define as belonging to in groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty. Low of individualism shows more collectivism that would have strong group cohesion and lead a large amount of loyalty with respect for members of the groups. For example, hiring and promotion practices are based on paternalism such as country of Japan, Pakistan and Panama.

Third model of cultural dimension is masculinity/ femininity. This dimension does not refer to the roles of men and women but to refer the value typically characterizing the two genders in order to determine how much society sticks with values and traditional. A high of masculinity scores define cultures value are competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition and power that represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. For example, women are generally expected to stay home and raise a family and most senior managers will be male such as Japan and Mexico country. While, low of masculinity shows a femininity culture that places more value on relations and quality of life stands for a preference of cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. For example, in organization tend to more women in high level jobs that will lead less conflict or job stress and reduced need for assertiveness such as country of Denmark and Sweden.

Fourth cultural dimension by hofstede is uncertainty avoidance that related to the degree of anxiety society’s tolerance of uncertainty or ambiguity situations reflect the extent to which member of society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. Therefore, high score of uncertainty avoidance shows a culture that more emotional and trying to minimize the unknown and unusual circumstances by more careful changes step in planning and implementing rules, laws and regulations. For example, manager tend to make low risk decisions, employees exhibit little aggressiveness and life time employment is common. While for low score of uncertainty avoidance, most people accept and feel comfortable in unstructured situations of changeable environments, more tolerant of change and try to have a few rules as possible. For example, managers willing to take more risks and there is high job mobility such as country of Denmark, Great Britain and United States.

Fifth model cultural dimension is long-term/ short-term orientation that indicated how much society values long standing as opposed to short-term traditions and values. Long-term orientation dimension is dealing with society show an ability to adapt traditions to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest thriftiness that lead to perseverance in achieving results. For example, acceptance of result in doing something may take time to achieve and respect for social and status obligations within limits. However, for short-term orientation determine normative thinking and focus on achieving quick results that people expect short-term rewards from their work. For example, do something related with the results and achievement that already set and can be reach within timeframe and regardless of cost.

Last of model cultural dimension is indulgence/ restraint where indulgence are tendency to allow relatively free gratification of basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having fun while restraint is a conviction that such gratification need to be curbed and regulated by strict social norms. Example of indulgence including more people actively in sports and higher importance of leisure and most people declaring themselves very happy. Besides that, for restraints shows a perception of helplessness, fewer people actively involved in sports and lower importance of leisure.

In conclusion, Hofstede’s cultural dimension help people in enhance their awareness of the cultural differences, give a general overview and an approximate understanding of other cultures in order to be able to have respectful cross-cultural relations.

In cross-cultural communication, Hofstede’s cultural dimension developed by Geert Hofstede play a role as theory of framework that shows the effect of a society’s culture on the value of its member relate to behaviour using this model instead to determine the national cultures. Therefore, by using this framework may help people to understand the differences in culture of Pakistan across countries and to distinguish between different national cultures. The percentage of cultural profiling in Pakistan is origin and latest from Hofstede Insight website.

First dimension is power distance indicated Pakistan with an intermediate score and has a rather high power distance rating of 55% shows it is not possible to determine a preference for Pakistan in this dimension. For example, Pakistani generally favour a hierarchical society in which everyone is aware of their role and accept the hierarchical order. Therefore, communication in Pakistan’s culture is most important because communication style could be influence the social hierarchy as well as Pakistan is collectivist society.

Second of cultural dimension is individualism/ collectivism. Pakistan shows a low score of individualism which is 14% considered this culture is collectivistic society. Pakistanis more focus on the wellbeing of the group than individual for their success with loyalty and responsibility as their main factor of face-saving. For example, family bonds are strong in Pakistan define family comes first due to religious, cultural, economic and societal value. Pakistani society is not led by individualism where family and other relationship stand strong.

Third model of cultural dimension is masculinity/ femininity shows Pakistani scores 50% on this dimension indicated intermediate score it cannot be said either Pakistan has a preference to masculinity or femininity. Sometimes, Pakistani known as male dominated society. For example, in Pakistani culture the male member of the family enjoys the key position such as the family was headed by male and he is the sole source of income for other members of the family. However, Pakistanis are very hospitable such as femininity culture that tend to soft approach especially guests, tourist and visitors whether domestic or international. For example, Pakistanis encourage to show love and respect towards guest due to cultural and religious of Islam that taught that they must be given the best treatment possible because a guest is a blessing from God.

Fourth cultural dimension by hofstede is uncertainty avoidance shows Pakistan had scored 70% on this dimension and has a high preference for avoiding uncertainty. Pakistanis culture determine rules, precision and regimented activity are valued because it’s may affected the emotional. For example, Pakistanis assume security is an important element in individual motivation and trying to avoid and minimizes any innovation that can lead to risk-taking. This is because, Pakistanis may feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations.

Fifth model cultural dimension is long-term/ short-term orientation that show Pakistan with an intermediate score of 50%. It is difficult to indicate a preference. It’s may be defines in both orientation which is Pakistanis can shows a long-term orientation since Pakistanis is very collectivist society that more considered well-being of long relationship and achievement for the sake of the group. However, Pakistanis may also show a short-term orientation by high of uncertainty avoidance that result and achievement are need to be reach within timeframe because time is money and punctuality is a norm for them.

Last of model cultural dimension is indulgence/ restraint. Pakistan shows an extremely low score of 0% on this dimension can be said to be very restrained society and have tendency to cynicism and pessimism. Although, Pakistanis do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control gratifications of their desires but Pakistanis love sports especially cricket introduced by British to Pakistan. Other sports like hockey, squash and badminton are also widely played and appreciated. These sport or games may reflect our cultural identity.

Advantages And Disadvantages Culture Diversity Of Pakistan

Knowledge base about cultural diversity is most important in order to help us understanding different perspectives and help to dispel the negative stereotypes and personal biases about different group either cross of country or within the country. However, instead of increase our level understanding about other culture by cultural diversity, it’s also have an advantages and disadvantages of culture diverse within the country due many of diverse such as Pakistan’s culture is very diverse influence by that country have over 165 million people with diverse social, ethnic, linguistic and cultural circumstances. Besides that, there are over 15 major ethnic groups in Pakistan which differ in physical features, historical bloodlines, customs, dress, food and music.

There are several advantages due to culture diverse in Pakistan. Firstly, a diverse ethnic group still will be guided with the same national identity. This is because, as an ideologically, Pakistan well known as an Islamic State. Therefore, Pakistan’s culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. For example, all cultural aspect in Pakistan are inspired by Islam that the people of some languages differences, customs and traditions commonly follow one religion which is Islam.

Besides that, a diverse social encourage a well-being relationship. Although Pakistanis have a lot of diverse social by each ethic but they are friendly among each other even have a gender segregation. This is because, due to Islamic and tribal influences lead them to have conservative expectation in terms of interactions between men and women. In addition, these cultural and religious belief which is Islam encourage Pakistanis to show love and respects towards other that will lead them as helpful, friendly, approachable and humble.

Furthermore, diverse cultural perspectives from each group ethnic may inspire creativity such as the arts and humanities. This is because, Pakistanis love listening to and making music due to culture diverse that has exposed Pakistanis musicians to many different poetic forms and styles that are unique related with the ethnic culture has attracted many of people internationally and locally. Besides that, there are a wide variety of graphic art and Pakistanis handicraft as the ethnic backgrounds of craftsmen. Pakistan’s culture are known as the high quality handicrafts and very popular in foreign countries.

Therefore, this does not mean that diversity comes without difficulties. It should be noted as factor to keep in mind as society toward a more diverse in future instead of be proactive in listening, accepting and welcoming people and ideas that are different.

One of disadvantage of cultural diversity in Pakistan such as integration across ethnic mobilizations might be difficult due many of ethnic differences. For example, the breakup of the country with emergence of an independent Bangladesh and continuing difficulties today are as key reminder of the seriousness of the issue where Pakistan with hardly any references to the events that led up to breakup of the country. So, ethnicity has become more significant especially in the era of globalization because the process of social change that unleash ethnic and national movements.

Besides that, tend to different understandings of democratic rule and citizen right. This lack of understanding lead to Pakistanis debate which is debate of federalism on the assumptions between relationships based on individual and groups in order to manage the conflict and better understanding. In addition, this debate known as their alternatives rather than hegemonic control in liberal democracies appears less feasible as citizenship.

Furthermore, conflict of social stratification which is classes and castes. Although, there is no caste system in Pakistan. But due to cultural diverse, there are high-income, middle-income and a large number of income person throughout the country. Research found importance difference in the quality of life which is a low-income person in an urban area has more problem than one living in a tribal, mountainous area.

 

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Cultures Differences Of Pakistan. (2021, Dec 29). Retrieved December 2, 2022 , from
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